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Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).

Pages 80 to 91 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 80 to 91 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription.


The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

Return to Page 79 (Annotated)
Return to Page 79
(Annotated Text)

Page 80

[Manor Farm]
Mr Gape's Farm on the Hill

John and Anne Pearman
He farms the estate for his father, who lives at Abington. His brother Abraham lives there generally and is a wild youth (see page 25). Anne Pearman cames from Kneesworth - her name was Saggers.
1. Elizabeth Pearman, aged 5 months. Christened at Croydon Church.
These people has left the parish.

[Above entry is crossed through]

[1841 Census: John Pearmain (aged 20), Abraham Pearmain (20) and Elizabeth Pearmain (15). Also living here at the time of the census was Sarah Larkins (12), servant.]

RSBS: (A family of the name of Beales are there now, but they are just about leaving - Mr Merry having taken the farm - and he wishes to let the house.)

[From the Croydon Farmers: Manor Farm was advertised as having "a pleasant two storey house with a porch". There were then two parlours downstairs, with a kitchen, wash-house and dairy behind; and four upstairs bedrooms. Outside there were three barns and another 'chaff and cutting barn', a cow house and a bullock house, two stables for ten horses, a granary, cart shed, piggery and poultry houses. Two new cottages had been erected for Pearman's two stock men, Blowes (page 82) and Clark (page 81).]

Page 81

[Cottage at Manor Farm]
____ Clarke, wife and large family

A rough lot, never come to Church or send their children to School.

[1841 Census: Richard Clarke (aged 35), agricultural labourer, Mary Clarke (40), Hanah Clarke (15), John Clarke (13), David Clarke (10), Charles Clarke (6), Sarah Clarke (3). Also living here at the time of the census was John Clarke (aged 1).]

[Contribution: Richard (c1806/c1797) and Mary Clarke (c1801/c1795). First estimated year of birth as 1841 census, second as 1851. Known children (list possibly incomplete): Hannah (c1826), John (c1828), David (c1831), Charles (c1835), Sarah (c1838). John (c1840) is possibly a grandchild (see page 37).]

[Contribution: There is a suggestion that Charles Clarke (born c1835) above was the son of Ruth Endersby (née Clarke) to another man prior to her marriage to William (See page 37). What is known is that William and Ruth Endersby emigrated to Australia in 1854 and Charles Clarke went with them.]

Page 82

[Cottage at Manor Farm]
Next door
William and Mary Blowes
They can read a little. He works for Mr George and attends Church vary rarely; she never, I believe, goes anywhere.
1. John Blowes, aged 18. Can't read. Horsekeeper at W Wilkins [see photo below].
2. Moses Blowes, aged 15. Reads very little. Horsekeeper to James Law.

RSBS: (lately comes to the Sunday school)
3. James Blowes, aged 12. Reads very little. Lame from an accident.
4. Kitty Blowes, aged 8. Reads very little.
5. An infant.

She is a daughter of Jane Thacker (page 2). They were married and the children baptised at Croydon Church. Another rough lot, and never come to Church or School.

[1841 Census: William Blows (aged 35), agricultural labourer, Mary Blows (35), John Blows (15), agricultural labourer, Moses Blows (13), James Blows (10) and Kitty Blows (7).]

John Blowes 1825-1908John Blowes 1825-1908
["Heres a pic of Pap Blowes. I dont have a date for it but it was probably taken in the 1880s. He died in 1908 at the home of one of his daughters in Great Stukely. He married a Sarah Titchmarch or Titmous in Croydon in 1848 and they had seven children. All of them grew up in Croydon but with increased industrialization most of them had migrated to cities by the late 1870s. Two of them emigrated to Canada (Manitoba). His son, Arthur, the second youngest and my great-grandfather (which would make John my great-great-grandfather) was a groomsman in the stables at Wimpole. He met my great-grandmother there. She was a servant in the great house."
- Contribution by Ralph Sprague.]

Page 83
Next door
James and Biddy Hagger
Can't read. He works for Mr Haydon, is given to drinking. She was a widow by the name of Nelson and is an Irish Roman Catholic and has two children by her former husband.
1. John Nelson, aged 17. Can't read. Works and sleeps at Mr Merry's.
2. Kitty Nelson, aged 13. Rather weak in her intellects. She is in the Sunday school.
William Hagger, son to James by a former wife, aged 26, lives here, and is a sad drunken fellow. [Mary Titmus (page 84 below) is daughter to James.]
RSBS: (Mentioned at page 58. They have removed to the Lime Kilns, and a family from Tadlow of the name of Titmus are come in.)
[1841 Census: James Hagger (aged 60), Biddy Hagger (50 - born Ireland) and Kitty (Hagger/ Nelson) (11 - born Ireland). Also living here at the time of the census were: Margret Easy (25 - born Ireland), Eliza Easy (4) and Alfred Easy (2). John Nelson (14) is recorded as living at Chandler Merry's Farm (page 62).]
[Contribution: John Nelson was born in Croydon-cum-Clopton, Cambridgeshire around 1827. John's sister Kitty Nelson (who was born around 1832) is listed as being born in Ireland as was John's mother Biddy (or Bridget) Hagger. By 1838, John's natural father had presumably died and his mother Biddy married James Hagger. On their marriage certificate Biddy lists her father as Edward Brown. I have discovered that John Nelson joined the 43rd Regiment, Light Infantry but I then lose track of the entire family until John resurfaces in the 1881 census with an Irish born wife (Margaret from Kilkenny) and grown children born in Ireland (daughter), India (son and daughter), New Zealand (son) and England. John is by this point retired and living in Chatham, Kent. His son, George Nelson, born in New Zealand, was my great grandfather, and he was a shipwright by trade. Does anyone know who John Nelson's father might have been and what became of the family after 1841? Family rumours indicate a possible link to Kings Lynn in Norfolk.
In the 1841 census, Biddy Hagger has living with her Margaret Easy and her two children Eliza and Alfred. It appears Margaret was Margaret Nelson who had married John Easy in Leeds. After her death he married Dinah Story. I am not sure if Margaret was Biddy's daughter or perhaps a sister in law.
Also in the 1841 Census was Kitty Hagger. I found her later (Catherine Nelson) in the Caxton workhouse with her daughter Eliza. Both Kitty and Eliza died in the workhouse.
Dianne Bray.
(If you have further information, please e-mail with full details)]

Contribution Susan Henn (18 January 2014)

Hi Steve -
I live in Canada with my connection to the Storey family through William Storey, Anderson & Dinah’s son. He is my 2nd great grandfather. I've been doing research on the family and I've noted a few things of interest in the Speculum Gregis.

Dinah Gilbert/Story/Easy
The Speculum Gregis indicates Dinah Storey's maiden name is Lowings (Lowins/Lowrings) and she is brother to John Lowings. Dinah's actual maiden name is Gilbert as confirmed in marriage records in CCC Cambs FHS: 16 Jul 1828 STOREY Anderson Chapman, bac otp to GILBERT Dinah, sp otp. Gilbert is also listed as her name on several of her children's marriage records in Canada.
There may be two areas where the confusion originates:
1) Thomas Lowings married an Ann Gilbert 19 Nov 1819 Gamlingay. I believe this is the Thomas & Ann Lowings in the 1841 Croydon Census. She is perhaps sister to Dinah (Gilbert) Storey. Dinah's father's name is listed as Benjamin Gilbert, gardener, on her marriage record but I can't locate any such individual.
2) Dinah Lowings (dau of Thomas & Ann Lowings, bapt 8 Apr 1827, Croydon) married James Hagger (son of John & Bathsheba Hagger) 21 Jan 1848 Croydon. Perhaps this is the sister of said John Lowings but I can't find any record a John son of Thomas.

Mary Nelson/Chapman/Storey
I have a military record for a Henry Chapman served in the 21st Light Dragoons, Number 3 Company (Canada,British Regimental Registers of Service 1756-1900). Indicates he is from Croydon,Camb born abt 1770. Enlisted Dec 1800 served in Canada and Cape of Good Hope where he was "invalided" Jul 1817. I'm thinking this is Mary Storey's first husband and he may have died from his injuries or indicated he was not coming/unable to come home and that is why Mary and John Storey did not marry until 1818.
I'm wondering too if Mary Storey was a sister to the "ghost Nelson" who may have been married to Biddy Hagger. I see the speculation is Biddy’s husband could have been “John” Nelson, father to Austin Nelson Simpson. There is a John Nelson living in Hunslet 1834 who is a heckle maker (General & Commercial Directory of Leeds 1834). Margaret Nelson (Biddy’s daughter?) indicates she is from Kirkstall on the marriage record to John Easy. Seems somewhat reasonable Biddy’s husband “Nelson” was from the area and that is what brought she and children to Croydon. Maybe that is how John Easy became “acquainted” with both Margaret and Dinah if perhaps Margaret and Anderson Storey were cousins/related.
Still a lot to figure out but I thought I’d pass along some of what I know and some of the speculation in case you have bits of information from other sources that make these puzzle pieces fit.

Susan Henn

PS I wonder if the Easy clan ever met up again with the Reverend Fulford when he became Bishop in Montreal. He likely would have been the overseer of the parish the Easys would have been part of in Quebec and only about an hour or so away. No doubt neither would have relished the idea of an encounter. It is especially likely he would not want to be reminded of them as he likely "padded" the nature of their characters to ensure easy passage to Canada (pun intended).


Page 84

Next door
Charles and Mary Titmus
He is nephew to Charles and Kitty Titmus (page 43). She is the daughter of James Hagger (pages 83 and 58). They can neither read.
1. James Titmus, aged 12. Is lately come into the Sunday school.
2. Thomas Titmus, aged 7.
3. Emma Titmus, aged 5.
4. Susan Titmus, aged 4.
5. John Titmus, aged 1.

They were married and their children Christened in Croydon Church. He works for James Law at Croydon Wilds. They are an unsatisfactory lot, always in rags, never attend Church or School. She and her children have been clothed by us more than once, but it does no good.

[James and Thomas Titmus attended Sunday School "...had their names in the School for about a year, and left without notice June 1844 having been always very irregular" - Rev Francis Fulford]

[1841 Census: Charles Titmus (aged 30), agricultural labourer, Mary Titmus (30), James Titmus (10), Thomas Titmus (5), Emma Titmus (4) and Susan Titmus (2).]

Page 85

In the Walnut Field
John and Mary Story
Can't Read. He generally works on the road. She is mother, by a former husband, of Ruth Lyon and Elizabeth Spencer (pages 36 and 51). Dinah Storey's husband was their son; he died about two years since by an accident in a gravel pit [Downing College records indicate suicide]. They attend Church - very regularly - she is a communicant, and very lame and has been accustomed to take Laudanum [opium in liquid form] for a pain in leg.

RSBS: (John Story is dead. Mary is entered page 51.)

[Above entries are crossed through]

[1841 Census: John Story (aged 65), agricultural labourer, and Mary Story (65).]

Austin Simpson, son of Lucy Simpson, married widow Chapman mentioned at page 15, and they have one child born since. He is Horsekeeper to Mr Ellis. Clean, tidy people.

[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 16 January 1845, Charles Simpson, of Austin and Ann, labourer]

[Contribution: (see also Page 83) I believe Austin Simpson was the "base born" son of John Nelson (possibly Biddy Hagger's first husband). - Dianne Bray.]

Page 86

Next door
James Chapman
An aged man, a widower, brother-in-law to Mary Storey next door - he has a grandchild Jane Chapman living with him - her friends live at Whaddon - she is rather out of her mind - aged 22.

RSBS: (He is a bad old man - drinks etc.)

[1841 Census: James Chapman (aged 70) and grandaughter Jane Chapman (17).]

RSBS: (Later: Martha Spencer, mentioned page 51, now lodges here.)

["lodges" may be Sandilands' politeway of putting it. Martha apparently had a daughter by 74-year old James. Croydon Parish Records record "Baptism: 25 December 1845: Spencer, Charlotte Thacker, illegitimate daughter of Martha. Wife of James, formerly of the 30th foot, now of the St Helens regiment (note: Martha Spencer, mother of the child is a married woman, deserted by her husband, who left her for two years before the birth of the child, of which W. [= James the elder?] Chapman is the acknowledged Father.)" See also page 51.]

Page 87

On the hill going to Gamlingay
___Nash and Mary Newman
These parties are not married - he is a very free spoken man and justifies his life by quoting Scripture, and the examples of David and Solomon. I have warned and rebuked and presented them at the visitation. The woman would marry gladly. She has one daughter by her late husband and two children by Nash.

Mary Newman is daughter to Charles and Kitty Titmus (page 43).

[Somewhat speculative.... From the 1841 Census: The above might be the gypsy Thomas Nash (aged 35), and the two children could then be Isibell Nash (5) and Henry Nash (4) - see earlier entry on page 29. At the time of the 1841 Census Mary Newman (35) and daughter Mary Newman (12) appear to be living at Samuel and Mary Pressland's (page 47).]

Page 88

Church Farm c1930

Church Farm c1930

Croydon Church Farm
William Ellis
Farmer - son of a Mr Ellis of Swaffam near Newmarket. Mr James King of Tadlow [whose threshing machine caused the riot] is his uncle and his sister married their cousin John King this year - 1845 - He is a steady respectable living man, engaged to be married but waiting for better times. He is a Communicant. He is the Parish Guardian and I have nominated him my Churchwarden twice, but he has never been sworn in, nor acted, Mr Merry having been some years in office and doing everything necessary. Mr Ellis is disposed to be a very kind neighbour - when at home always regular at Church, but he is often out of a Sunday.

[1841 Census: William [Stanton] Ellis (aged 25), farmer, wife Emma Ellis (20) and child Charlotte Ellis (8). Also residing at Church Farm at the time of the census were Thomas Carter (40/45) and Thomas Simpson (39) both agricultural labourers.]

Gravestone in Croydon Churchyard

Grave Stone in Croydon Churchyard.
"In affectionate remembrance of
William Stanton Ellis
April 10 1816 - January 18 1872
And of Sarah his wife
died February 5 1902
aged 77 years
Also of Caroline Frances Ellis
daughter of the above
died July 9 1856 - aged 18 weeks"

Page 89

Opposite Wendy Turnpike Gate
William and Priscilla Pedley
He is a sort of bailiff for Mr Rust (who farms lives on an estate the other side of Royston). He is a very steady respectable man, a Communicant but rather inclining to 'expounding' himself. His wife is daughter of John Simpson - late Clerk.
3 children.

RSBS: (He is now Clerk of Wendy church in _____ [the room of Hill?])

[1841 Census: William Pedley (aged 25), agricultural labourer, Persiller Pedley (25) and Alfred Pedley (5 months)]

Page 90

Wendy Turnpike Gate
George and Ann Bartle Wootton
He is son of Joseph Wootton (page 21). She comes from Wendy. They seem to be steady, tidy, people.
1 child.

RSBS: (George Wootton died Sunday 27th December 1846 of consumption and Ann his widow married Thomas Lee.)

[1841 Census: No record.]

[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 11 June 1843, Thomas Lee, aged 28 years 8 months, of John and Elizabeth, labourer]

[Known spelling variations: Wooton, Wootton, Wootten.]

Page 91

At Mr Jackson's Old Farm
Whitchurch and Wife
And two children.
This man used to farm one of Mr Gape's estates, but through his own and his wife's faults, has been ruined, and is now reduced to work on the roads. His wife seems broken down in health and spirits. He is rather given to drink still.

They are only lately come here. He has friends in very good circumstances, but they are all tired out with helping him - an unsatisfactory lot.

[1841 Census: No record.]

RSBS: (Jonathan and Jane Chapman and family (see page 32) now reside in the adjoining house to the above.)

RSBS: (Later note: John and Susan Green and family live here also (see page 58).)

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Return to Page 79 (Annotated)
Return to Page 79
(Annotated Text)
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
In the first instance please contact the website with details.
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