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Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).

Pages 50 to 59 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 50 to 59 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription.


The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

Return to Page 49 (Annotated)
Return to Page 49
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 60
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 60 (Annotated)
Page 50/1
John Simpson
A widower [wife was Elizabeth Lenton (d.1841)], formerly the Parish Clerk. Has one son unmarried .
1. Hosea Simpson, aged 21. Can read.
RSBS: ([Hosea] is lately married to Mary Spencer - he went to Canada before his marriage.)
[John Simpson is father to Eliza Lyon (Page 39)]
Lives in the same house
Isaiah and Sarah Simpson
Can both read. He is the eldest son of the above, and they have one child.
1. Ziniri [Zimor?] Henry Simpson, aged 3.
RSBS: (They were married and their child Christened in Poplar Church, London, from wence she came. She takes in needlework. They went to Canada, but returned and are now in London.)
[Above entry completely crossed through]
[1841 Census: John Simpson (aged 50), agricultural labourer, son Isiah Simpson (20), agricultural labourer, Isiah's wife Sarah Simpson (21) and Zimor Simpson (male)(1).]
Page 50/2 [Reverse Page]
William and Edith Pateman
He can read. She can a little. Married at Hatley. They are not happy together and he is given to drinking - they seldom attend Church and she is said to be not immaculate. He has been in prison two or three times for beating his wife from jealousy.
1. Marianne Pateman, aged 5. Christened at Caxton.
2. Josiah Pateman, aged 2 months. Christened at Croydon.
RSBS: (Has left her chargeable on the parish.)
[*Contribution: William is son of the William Pateman on page 30 and first wife Alice, nee Ingrey. This William married Edith, nee Leonard with children Marianne (1837), Josiah (1842-1844), James (1843), and James (1845).]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 11 December 1842, Josiah Pateman, of William and Edith, labourer; 11 May 1845, James Pateman, of William and Edith, labourer.]
Lives in the house.
Sarah Page
Her husband was transported about 3 years since.
1. John Page, aged 11. In the Sunday school.
2. Samuel Page, aged 10. In the Sunday school.
3. James Page, aged 7. In the Sunday school.
She attends church often - goes out washing etc.
[John and Samuel Page attended Croydon Sunday School.
John: "Entered the school April 1842, aged ten years and left of his own choice May 1845. He could read very little and was not a very orderly boy." - Rev Francis Fulford]
Samuel: "Entered the school April 1842 being nine years old, but never attended after I became Rector" - Rev R S B Sandilands.]
[1841 census: At the time of the census Sarah Page and family were lodging with Bersheba Chapman at an unidentified house. Details were: Sarah Page (aged 30), and children John Page (9), Samuel Page (7) and James Page (4).]
Page 51
John and Elizabeth Spencer
He can read and works at Pearman's. She can read. He is brother to Henry Spencer (page 66), and she is daughter of Mary Storey (page 85) by her former husband, and sister to Ruth Lyon (page 36). They hardly ever attend Church.
1. Caroline Spencer, aged 8.
RSBS: (Elizabeth now dead.)
[John Spencer was a prosecution witness in the trial of those involved in the 1832 Croydon Riot]
[1841 Census: John Spencer (aged 45), agricultural labourer, Elizabeth Spencer (45) and daughter Carioline Spencer (6).]
Old widow [Mary] Storey lives with her - she is a most chattering, canting old woman, used to be a communicant, uses a great deal of Laudanum [opium in liquid form]. [See also page 85].

RSBS: (Is now in the Caxton workhouse.)

Lives in the same house
Martha Spencer
Wife of [James] Spencer, son of the above; he has enlisted lately, having run himself much in debt. She is daughter of James and Jane Thacker (page 2).
RSBS: (She was confined on 28 January 1843.)
RSBS: (Later: She lives now in the Walnut Field with Old [James] Chapman, and has lately had a bastard child*, which is since dead.) [see page 86]
RSBS: (Later again: She has now returned to her husband's father, having heard of her husband being alive at St Helena, January 1847.)
[*Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: "25 December 1845: Spencer, Charlotte Thacker, illegitimate daughter of Martha. Wife of James, formerly of the 30th foot, now of the St Helens regiment (note: Martha Spencer, mother of the child is a married woman, deserted by her husband, who left her for two years before the birth of the child, of which W. Chapman is the acknowledged Father.")]
[1841 Census: James Spencer was living at Mrs Casburn's at the time of the census. Martha does not appear to be living in the parish.]
Page 52
Isaac and Sarah Thompson
Can both read. He works for Mr Jackson, on the roads: she has bad health. He was a widower and has one daughter by his first wife.
1. Anne Thompson, aged 15. Can read, grand-daughter to widow [Mary] Edwards (page 64).
He sings in the choir, was married to his present wife at Wimpole*. She is a Wimpole woman. Steady respectable people. She comes from Cheshunt.
[* Contribution: "Wimpole Registers: 12 December 1831. Isaac Thomson (x) of Croydon cum Croydon and Sarah Maser (x) of this parish. Witnesses: John Moule and Mary Hewitt (x)"
[Isaac Thompson had taken part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and was sentenced to six month's imprisonment]
[1841 Census: Isac Thompson (aged 30), agricultural labourer, wife Sarah Thompson (25) At the time of the census, daughter Ann Thompson (aged 13) was a servant at Thomas and Mary Jackson's (page 63).]
Page 53
[The Limekilns]
William Lee
(Mentioned page 17) now lives here. His first wife died of typhus fever about two years since. His sister Lydia keeps house for him, but it is said he is about to marry Henry Spencer's youngest daughter, Ann. [Penciled in:] was married 9th November.
RSBS: (Lydia Lee is a leading person in Church Choir and is a communicant.)
RSBS: (Later: gone to live with her mother.)
[1841 Census: At the time of the census Thomas Lee (aged 25), agricultural labourer and his sister Lydia Lee (15) was living here. Thomas also mentioned on page 90. William Lee was married to Mary and living elsewhere (see page 17 for details).]
Page 54
[The Limekilns]
Dinah Storey [nee Lowrings][nee Gilbert? see January 2014 contribution below]
A widow, can read; goes out working. Her husband [Anderson] was a son of John and Mary Storey (page 85) and was killed about two years since in the falling in of a quarry [Downing College records indicate suicide]. She is sister to John Lowrings (page 56).
1. William Storey, aged 14. Works for Mr C King. In the Sunday school but William attends very irregularly and can read very little.
2. Mary Storey
, aged 12. In the Sunday school.
3. John Storey, aged 4. In the Sunday school.
[William Storey attended Croydon Sunday School. "Emigrated to Canada June 1843 having been a year in the School. An unruly boy." - Rev Francis Fulford]
She used to attend Church very constantly, but has not been for some Sundays. She has a man called John Easy living with her now, by whom she had two children, twins, some years ago, whilst her husband was in prison. He [Easy] is brother of Emma Thacker [page 16] - is lately become a widower, having two children now in Yorkshire, where he has been living some years and where his wife died. All her children have been Christened in Croydon Church.
RSBS: (Later: She married Easy, and they are gone to live in Canada. Charles and Mary Titmus, entered on page 43, now live here.)
[Anderson Storey had taken part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and was sentenced to seven year's transportation]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 1 August 1841, Caroline Storey, daughter of Anderson and Dinah, labourer.]
[1841 Census: Dinah Story (aged 30), and children William Story (12), Mary Storey (10) and John Story (2).]

Contribution Susan Henn (18 January 2014)

Hi Steve -
I live in Canada with my connection to the Storey family through William Storey, Anderson & Dinah’s son. He is my 2nd great grandfather. I've been doing research on the family and I've noted a few things of interest in the Speculum Gregis.

Dinah Gilbert/Story/Easy
The Speculum Gregis indicates Dinah Storey's maiden name is Lowings (Lowins/Lowrings) and she is brother to John Lowings. Dinah's actual maiden name is Gilbert as confirmed in marriage records in CCC Cambs FHS: 16 Jul 1828 STOREY Anderson Chapman, bac otp to GILBERT Dinah, sp otp. Gilbert is also listed as her name on several of her children's marriage records in Canada.
There may be two areas where the confusion originates:
1) Thomas Lowings married an Ann Gilbert 19 Nov 1819 Gamlingay. I believe this is the Thomas & Ann Lowings in the 1841 Croydon Census. She is perhaps sister to Dinah (Gilbert) Storey. Dinah's father's name is listed as Benjamin Gilbert, gardener, on her marriage record but I can't locate any such individual.
2) Dinah Lowings (dau of Thomas & Ann Lowings, bapt 8 Apr 1827, Croydon) married James Hagger (son of John & Bathsheba Hagger) 21 Jan 1848 Croydon. Perhaps this is the sister of said John Lowings but I can't find any record a John son of Thomas.

Mary Nelson/Chapman/Storey
I have a military record for a Henry Chapman served in the 21st Light Dragoons, Number 3 Company (Canada,British Regimental Registers of Service 1756-1900). Indicates he is from Croydon,Camb born abt 1770. Enlisted Dec 1800 served in Canada and Cape of Good Hope where he was "invalided" Jul 1817. I'm thinking this is Mary Storey's first husband and he may have died from his injuries or indicated he was not coming/unable to come home and that is why Mary and John Storey did not marry until 1818.
I'm wondering too if Mary Storey was a sister to the "ghost Nelson" who may have been married to Biddy Hagger. I see the speculation is Biddy’s husband could have been “John” Nelson, father to Austin Nelson Simpson. There is a John Nelson living in Hunslet 1834 who is a heckle maker (General & Commercial Directory of Leeds 1834). Margaret Nelson (Biddy’s daughter?) indicates she is from Kirkstall on the marriage record to John Easy. Seems somewhat reasonable Biddy’s husband “Nelson” was from the area and that is what brought she and children to Croydon. Maybe that is how John Easy became “acquainted” with both Margaret and Dinah if perhaps Margaret and Anderson Storey were cousins/related.
Still a lot to figure out but I thought I’d pass along some of what I know and some of the speculation in case you have bits of information from other sources that make these puzzle pieces fit.

Susan Henn

PS I wonder if the Easy clan ever met up again with the Reverend Fulford when he became Bishop in Montreal. He likely would have been the overseer of the parish the Easys would have been part of in Quebec and only about an hour or so away. No doubt neither would have relished the idea of an encounter. It is especially likely he would not want to be reminded of them as he likely "padded" the nature of their characters to ensure easy passage to Canada (pun intended).

Page 55
[Editorial note: Joseph Dellar was born in Wrestlingworth in Bedfordshire. In the Wimpole marriage register he is shown as Joseph Darnell and he married Mary Worland on October 13 1834. In the 1841 census for Croydon-cum-Clopton he was recorded as Joseph Darlow. In the "Speculum Gregis" he seems to be either Joseph Darter or Joseph Darler depending on the transcription. In the Croydon Parish Registers he is Darnell. In the 1851 census he was recorded as Joseph Darlow again. I have chosen to use Darnell from the Parish Registers in this edition but to index all five variations.]
Joseph and Mary Darnell
He can read, she a very little. They were married at Wimpole. He used to plays the clarinet at Church, but has been very ill lately. Is now in the hospital - has been much given to drinking. RSBS: (Later: He is well again.)
1. William, aged 14. Reads a little, in the Sunday School, Christened.
2. Joseph, aged 8. Not christened; in the Sunday School.
3. Jane, aged 5. Christened.
4. Elizabeth, aged 3. Christened.
5. Samuel, aged 3 months. Not Christened.
She hardly ever attends Church. He is a very civil man, but I fear drinks still. They are always in want, though they earn very high wages amongst them. She is a women not to be trusted.
[William Darnell attended Croydon Sunday School. "Entered April 1842 aged 12 years and left of his own choice May 1845. He could read very little. Was not an ill behaved boy and civil." William was also a candidate for Confirmation in June 1844 but did not proceed due "Was absent haymaking near London" - Rev Francis Fulford. ]
[Contribution: Mary Worland was born in Wimpole and baptised on 28 November 1809, illegitimate daughter of John Pratt and Lydia Worland, although her parents later married on 2 November 1812.]
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 20 September 1840, Elizabeth Darnell, daughter of Joseph and Mary, labourer.]
[1841 Census: Joseph Darlow (aged 30), agricultural labourer, wife Mary Darlow (30), children William Darlow (10), Joseph Darlow (5), Jane Darlow (3) and Elizabeth Darlow (6 months). Also living here was Jane Worland (aged 60).]
Page 56
John and Dinah Lowrings
Very constant at church. They have three daughters, two very respectable servants, the second at home. The youngest lives at Mr Merry's, a very pleasing steady girl.
He is ignorant and rather given to drink. They are well off; she goes out nursing, is a clean tidy woman, but a great talker.
[John is brother to Dinah Storey, page 54]
RSBS: (Going to live in a cottage behind Mr Gape's farm which Merry has just taken [page 79?]. The eldest daughter is just married to a Tadlow man.)
[1841 Census: Thomas Lowins (aged 40), agricultural labourer, wife Ann Lowins (40) and Sarah Lowins (10). No other Lowins/Lowrings identifiable in census.]
Page 57
John and Mary Endersby
He can't read, works on the road. She can read a little. She is a sister to John Green next door, the clerk. They have one son married (page 37).
1. Stephen Endersby, aged 27. Reads a little.
2. Richard Endersby, aged 25. An idiot.
3. David Endersby, aged 18. Reads a little.
They were Christened at Tadlow. They attend Church. A very disorderly set the sons - and all very ignorant. She has had a attack of paralysis.
RSBS: (But is much better.)
RSBS: (Later: She died suddenly in February 1848.)
[1841 Census: John Endersby (aged 50), agricultural labourer, wife Mary Endersby (50), Stephen Endersby (25), agricultural labourer, Richard Endersby (25), agricultural labourer, and David Endersby (15), agricultural labourer.]
Page 58
John and Susan Green
He can read. She can't. He was formally transported [but see note below] for being very active in the agricultural riots, is now a very steady man, sings in the choir at Croydon Church, and is a Communicant. He was a widower and she a widow. (She had a family before; one son has recently enlisted.)
1. John [?] Green, aged 20. Lives with Mr Thorpe of Hatley
2. Lydia, aged 15. Can read. Lately left the Sunday School and is gone to service.
3. John, aged 12. Now in the Sunday school.
4. Anne, aged 4.
They attend Church and are steady respectable people.
RSBS: (They now live down in Mr Jackson's old farm (see page 91).)
[John Green had taken part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and was formally sentenced to seven years transportation to Australia. He returned to Croydon after his sentence but it is now believed he served his 'time' without leaving England. See contributed article Lost Convict (opens in Word 93 KB).] See also: Royston and District Family History Society Journal, December 2007.
[John was 36 in 1832 when he was sentenced, therefore he would have been 47 the year Fulford started his "Speculum Gregis". Although it is not mentioned on this page, there are references elsewhere recording that a John Green used to be the Parish Clerk.]
[1841 Census: Susan Green (aged 25), Lydia Green (15), John Green (10), Ann Green (3). Also living here, John Walduck (aged 15), agricultural labourer.]
James and Biddy Hagger
Now live here [see page 83]. He is a sad and drunken fellow, and has a 'worthy' son by his first wife. Biddy is an Irish Woman and, as far she knows, a Roman Catholic. She has a son and a silly daughter of the name of Nelson, by a former husband. The old people not often at Church.
Page 59
Lives at Clopton Farm
William Fitzjohn
Aged and rather infirm - he formerly rented this estate - but was cheated by his own relations, and is now employed as bailiff by Mr Elliston. He can read and write.
Sarah Fitzjohn
His sister, lives with him. She is also very aged and infirm and has not left the house for ten or eleven years. Mary and Hannah Cockerell, two nieces of the old people live with them.
[All the above entries are crossed through]
RSBS: (All dead or removed.)
[See also page 60 for Clopton Farm "under the same roof".]
[1841 Census: William Fitzjohn (aged 70), agricultural labourer, sister Sarah Fitzjohn (75), Charles Fitzjohn (30), agricultural labourer. Also here: Mary Cockrell (25) and Hannah Cockrell (15).]
Return to Page 49 (Annotated)
Return to Page 49
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 60
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 60 (Annotated)
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
In the first instance please contact the website with details.
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