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Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).

Pages 70 to 79 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 70 to 79 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription.


The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

Return to Page 69 (Annotated)
Return to Page 69
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 80
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 80 (Annotated)
Page 70
Farm on the Tadlow Road
Charles and Emily King
They were married last July 4 - she came from St Neots - her name was Cross. He is only 20 years old. He had a sister [Heneretta?] married at Croydon Church July 5 1842 to Mr Youngman of Waterbeach, now living at Arrington Mill.
[Contribution: Charles King (bap Croydon 1823) son of Charles and Elizabeth]
Sarah Janeway another sister aged 22, lives with him and is a communicant.
Emily King was in a decline when she married, most of her family having died of that disorder. She has now been confined to her bed for many weeks. During her illness I have visited her once or twice every week.
William Warder - an aged man, sleeps on the premises by permission, having worked many years in the farm.
Jabez Chapman, son of Bathsheba Chapman (whose husband has left her, and she is living at Hatley with a man of the name of Mims) sleeps on the premises, and is a carter.
Eliza Warboys (page 26) is their servant.
[all entries above are crossed through]
[1841 Census: Charles King (aged 17), farmer, and Heneretta King (20). Also living here at the time of the census were: Maria Wenham (65), Susan Lee (15), servant, William Ward (65), agricultural labourer, William Pedley (15), agricultural labourer, and Robert Lion (15), agricultural labourer.]
RSBS: (Mr Jackson [page 63] now lives here and the Kings are all dead or removed. Sarah King lives with her uncle, Mr Wenham, near Arrington Bridge and occasionally attends Croydon Church.)

Page 71

"Downing Arms" - Public House
William Simons and Wife
And a large family. He is a bricklayer also, and a very respectable man and his wife also bears a good character. Some of the sons are unruly. They seldom come to Croydon Church, but go, I believe, to Tadlow.

[1841 Census: William Simons (40) and Barbara Simons (40) , with children Jane Simons (20), William Simons (15), George Simons (14), Stephen Simons (10), Samuel Simons (8), Fredrick Simons (6), Elizabeth Simons (5), Susan Simons (3) and Emma Simons (2). Also living here at the time of the census was Thomas Randell (65), agricultural labourer P [pensioner?].]

Gravestones in Croydon Churchyard

Grave Stones in Croydon Churchyard.
(left) Emma Simons, daughter of William and Barbara Simon
died January 1892 in her 52nd year
also of Samuel Simons their son
died 15 September 1868 in his 56th year
(middle) Barbara, wife of William Simons
who died 15 June 1870, aged 78 years
(right) William Simons (much illegible)
1856 (?) aged 59 years.

[Frederick William Simons and his family went to Australia in 1858]

The "Downing Arms" was first licensed as a pub in 1827 There was previously a farm on the site and the barn at the back of the pub had a dairy. The farm (66 Acres) continued with the pub until 1947 when Downing College who owned a large estate of land from Tadlow, Croydon, East Hatley and Gamlingay, sold the estate.
The pub was originally established as part of a funding drive by Downing College. The college had come into being as a result of the will of the third Sir George Downing, the first having been granted the title to the land around the time of the restoration of the Monarchy. However his descendants had disputed the will for many years and the money for the college and the estates which were to fund it di not come into the hands of the University until circa 1805.
The college built a toll road on its land to join the Old North Road (Ermine Street) and the Great North Road. This road is now the B1042 and the toll cottage can be seen on the road at the junction with the turning for Shingay. The "Downing Arms" was conveniently situated on the Road and the college applied for a licence for it as a pub and it subsequently became the rent house of Downing College. This may in part be the origin of the name since the tenants on the Downing College Estate paid their rent at the pub each Michelmas and saw the coat of arms of the Downing family, which includes a griffin rampant , as a scratching cat which took their money.
One family, the Simons lived in the house and farm from before 1820 through to 1916, and the "Downing Arms" finally closed in 95/96. I have only one photograph of the pub in action with what appears to be the Cambridgeshire Hunt meeting outside for a stirrup cup. The hunt photograph is very apposite since one of the former bursars of the college Dr John Perkins used to hunt from the "Downing Arms" with his friend W G Grace, the cricketer.

Geoff Mason and adapted from the Lost Pubs Project Website

Page 72

In the Farm yard behind the "Downing Arms"
William and Ann Rayner
He works for Mr King of Tadlow. He can't read - his wife can - they mostly attend Tadlow church, they say, which is considerably nearer than Croydon.
She is a base-born daughter of Lucy Simpson (page 45).
1. William Rayner, aged 24. Works for and sleeps at Mr Jackman's - can't read. Attends Croydon Church.
2. Edward Rayner, aged 22. Works for Mr King with his father - can't read. Attends Tadlow Church.
3. Marianne Rayner, aged 17. In service at Cambridge.
4. Harriet Rayner, aged 14. In service at Cambridge.
5. Sarah Rayner, aged 12. Reads very little.
6. Elizabeth Rayner, aged 10. Reads very little.
7. Joseph Rayner, aged 7.
8. Alfred Rayner, aged 5.

Married at Croydon Church and children Christened there.

[1841 Census: William Rayner (aged 45), agricultural labourer, wife Ann Rayner (40), with William Rayner (20), Edward Rayner (20), Harriett Rayner (12), Sarah Rayner (10), Elizabeth Rayner (8), Joseph Rayner (6) and Alfred Rayner (3).]

Page 73

Last Farm on the Tadlow Road
Elizabeth White
About 45, unmarried. Her father who was for many years churchwarden, died about last June and was buried at Tadlow. She rarely attends Croydon Church.

RSBS: (She has left the parish) [Received notice to quit in July 1843.]

[Above entries are crossed through]

[1841 Census: Richard White (aged 80), farmer, Elizabeth White (35), Francis White (male) (50). Also living here at the time of the census were: William Theobalds (30), agricultural labourer, Sarah Yarrow (15), servant, and Elizabeth Yarrow (14), servant.]

RSBS: (Later:
Mr and Mrs John King
live here now.
She is sister to Mr Ellis. He is son to Mr James King of Tadlow. She is a very pleasing, well principled young women. We used to see a good deal of her before her marriage, when she lived with her brother in the village. He also bears a very good character.
Mr John King is Overseer of the Poor this year.)

Page 74

On the Hill near Tadlow
Mary Casbourn
A widow - died in April 1846. She occupies a Farm partly in Croydon, partly in Tadlow. Is aged, and the road to her farm is scarcely passable in winter. She attends Croydon church occasionally regularly in summer and is a communicant. She has been twice married.

Christopher Lyon (page 36) sleeps on the farm and so does Alfred Presland (page 46). She keeps two maids who attend Croydon Church occasionally, those now being with her are not natives of this parish. Their names are Elizabeth and Sarah Harper.
[Above paragraph is crossed through]

[1841 Census: Mary Casburn (aged 65), farmer. Also living here at the time of the census
were: Phebe Watson (2), Sarah Harper (15), servant, and
James Spencer (20), agricultural labourer (see entry at page 51).]

RSBS: (She is about to leave this farm; and it will be occupied by Mr Elliston or his son - who now live at Wimpole and hold another estate in Croydon. The Ellistons are very respectable people - Mr Elliston, the father, was brother to Elliston [*] of Drury Lane.)

[Contribution: *ELLISTON, ROBERT WILLIAM (1774-1831), English actor and theatre manager, was born 1774 in London , the son of a watchmaker. He acted at Drury Lane from 1804 and leased the theatre from 1819, presenting Kean, Mme Vestris and Macready. Ill-health and misfortune culminated in his bankruptcy in 1826, when he made his last appearance at Drury Lane as Falstaff. Leigh Hunt compared him favourably with Garrick; Byron thought him inimitable in high comedy; Macready praised his versatility.]

Page 75

Mr Henry Mole
and Wife [Mary Ann] and 3 or four children.
Farmer, lately come into the parish from the neighbourhood of St Neots. They are very constant at church - seem to wish to be on friendly terms - he is Surveyor of Roads this year.

[Contribution: Henry Tingey Mole, born c1817 at Little Barford, Bedfordshire. Mary Ann, born c1817 at St Neots, Huntingdonshire. Their first two children, Henry (c1840) and John (c1842) were both born in Hail Weston, Huntingdonshire. The third, Sarah, was born (c1845) in Croydon-cum-Clopton. At the time of the 1851 census, they also had two servants living with them.]

Page 76

Croydon Wilds Farm - Mr Gape's
James and Sarah Law
1. David Law, aged 11. Reads a little.
2. Martin Law, aged 7. Reads a little.
3 Philip Law, aged 5.
4. Sarah Anne Law, aged 4.
5. An infant born 14 Sept 1842.

They were married at Croydon. They are very much inclined to dissent, and neither of them attend often at Croydon Church. She, I believe, is partly prevented partly by distance and bad roads. Their children have been baptised at Bassingbourn Meeting, all except the youngest and that has not yet been taken anywhere for baptism. He is brother to John William Law (page 10).

RSBS: (James Law died about two years since.)

[1841 Census: James Law (aged 25), farmer, Sarah Law (25), David Law (8), Martin Law (5), Phillip Law (3), Sarah Law (1). Also living here at the time of the census was: Phillip Gentle (15), agricultural labourer.]

Page 77

Next door farm
William and Sarah Wilkins
They were bred as Baptists. He is first cousin to Mrs Jackson. Neither he nor his wife often attend Croydon Church, but the boys come most Sundays.
1. Ivatt Wilkins, aged 21 [more probably 17]. Works as a Miller at Sandy.
2. Susan Wilkins, aged 16.
3. John Wilkins, aged 13.
4. David Wilkins, aged 10.
5. Henry Wilkins, aged 8.
6. James Wilkins, aged 6.
7. Sarah Anne Wilkins, aged 5
8. Jane Wilkins, aged 4.
9. Marianne Wilkins, aged 4 months.
The children, I believe, were all baptised at Eversden Meeting.

John Blowes sleeps on the premises as Horsekeeper.
[Above sentence is crossed through]

Wilkins acts as gamekeeper for Mr Gape.

[1841 Census: William Wilkins (aged 40), farmer, wife Sarah Wilkins (40), children Ivett Wilkins (15), miller, Susan Wilkins (14), John Wilkins (12), David Wilkins (9), Henry Wilkins (7), James Wilkins (5), Ann Wilkins (3), and Jane Wilkins (1). Also living here at the time of the census were: Mary Wilkins (25) and Elizabeth Mims (15), servant.]

Page 78

Widow Larkins
Rather deaf - a very respectable person. Goes out as Nurse, is an excellent cook and has lived as housekeeper to Mrs Yorke [**].

She has
One son, a very wild one.
One daughter [Jane] married to Simons, the bricklayer's eldest son.
Two daughters unmarried and both in service.

RSBS: (She now lives in the farm lately occupied by Mr Jackson.)

[1841 Census: Charlotte Larkins (aged 35), and Charles Larkins (15).]

[* Contribution: 'Widow Larkins' is Charlotte Larkins, born Maidstone Kent, wife of James Larkin(s), a cattle drover. The 'wild one' son was Charles Larkins born Croydon-cum-Clopton 1823. One of the unmarried daughters was Sarah Larkins (born Croydon-cum-Clopton 1830. James and Charlotte Larkins had many children: William (1820), Charles (1823), Sarah (1830), Jane (see entry below), Elizabeth, Caroline, Louisa and Violetta are known.]

[** Contribution: Mrs Yorke was probably Lady Elizabeth Yorke (d.1858) at nearby Wimpole Hall, wife of the 3rd Earl of Hardwicke until his death in 1834.]

Simons and Wife
[John and Jane] Simons, and three children. Bricklayer - son of the man at the "Downing Arms". His wife a shocking dawdle and bad health. He is a civil man, but said to like sitting in a public house much better than at home.

RSBS: (His wife is said to be in fault. She is daughter of Widow Larkins above.)

[1841 Census: John Simons (aged 20), bricklayer, Jane Simons (15), and child Emmelia Simons (3 months).]

[Contribution: John Simons, bricklayer, born Gamlingay of parents William and Barbara, wife is Jane (nee Larkin), Eldest child is daughter Emmelia (or Emmeley) Simons 1841, then William Simons 1843 and George Simons 1848.]

Page 79

Edward and Maria Thomas
([Maria] Dead)

He can read a little, works for Mr Pearman, is son to Widow Thomas (page 17). She can read. She is of a querulous disposition. They are very regular at Church.
1. Edward Thomas, aged 4. Christened at Croydon Church.
2. William Thomas, aged 7 months. Christened at Croydon Church.

Edward Thomas has been laid up for near two years with swellings and ulcers, supposed to be the effects of bad typhus fever - of which also his wife died.

RSBS: (He is now bedridden, has received the sacrament. I have attended him for a long time. His brother lives with him. she is of a querulous disposition [?].)

RSBS: (Later note: Edward Thomas died in October, and his Mother and children are about to be moved out, and the Lowrings from the Brick Kilns are going into the house.)

[1841 Census: Edward Thomas (25), agricultural labourer, Maria Thomas (20), Edward Thomas (2) and Rebecca Thomas (3 months).]

Return to Page 69 (Annotated)
Return to Page 69
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 80
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 80 (Annotated)
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
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