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Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).

Pages 20 to 29 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 20 to 29 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription.


The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

Return to Page 19 (Annotated)
Return to Page 19
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 30
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 30 (Annotated)
Page 20
Next door.
William and Mary Seaboy [Marriage: 10 November 1825, Croydon-cum-Clopton].
He can't read. He works for Mr Pearman. She can [read] a little. They have no kindred here, were married at Ashwell where the eldest children were Christened; the three youngest in Croydon Church. He was a widower, she a widow before, and she has two daughters by her first husband out at service. They seldom attend Church and are not very tidy or respectable people - drink
1. George Seaboy, aged 15. Works for Mr Pearman. In the Sunday School.
2. William Seaboy, aged 13. Works for Mr Haydon. In the Sunday School.
3. Edward Seaboy, aged 11. Works for Mr Pearman. In the Sunday School.
4. Sarah Seaboy, aged 6.
5. Eliza Seaboy, aged 3.
6. Abraham Seaboy, aged 1.
[ Contribution:
Mary Tate was born Abt. 1800 in Potton. Bedforshire., and died 28 March 1876 in Union Workhouse. Caxton Cambs. She married William Sabey on 10 November 1825 in Croydon-cum-Clopton, son of George Sabey and Ann Warboys. Children were:
i. George Sabey, b. Abt. 1829, Ashwell. Hertforshire., d. 1909, Bath..
ii. William Sabey, b. Abt. 1830, Ashwell. Hertforshire., d. date unknown.
iii. Edward Sabey, b. Abt. 1832, Ashwell. Hertforshire., d. date unknown.
iv. Mary Sabey, b. Abt. 1834, d. October 1836, Croydon. Cambs..
v. Sarah Sabey, b. Abt. 1837, Croydon cum Clopton Cambs., d. date unknown.
vi. Eliza Sabey, b. Abt. 1840, Croydon cum Clapton Cambs., d. date unknown.
vii. Abraham Sabey, b. 1842, Croydon cum Calpton Sth. Cambs., m=Charlotte Goates (b Arrington 1845) d. 15 March 1922, North Middlesex Hospital. Edmonton.
viii. Thomas Sabey, b. 1844, Croydon-cum-Clopton, d. date unknown.]
They are about to move up to the Lime Kilns to Lowring's house.
One of her daughters by the first husband is now at home with a bastard child.
[Edward and William Seaby dismissed from Sunday School 1843. "These were very disorderly boys who had been used always to do as they pleased before I came, and would not submit to discipline and disturbed the school." - Rev Francis Fulford.]
Link: William Goates Snr/Croydon Seaboys (Brian Mitchell/Royston and District Family History Society)
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 17 April 1842, Abraham Seaboy, son of William and Mary, labourer; 20 May 1844, Thomas Seaboy, of William and Mary, labourer]
[1841 Census: William Seaby (aged 45), agricultural labourer, wife Mary Seaby (35), children George Seaby (12), William Seaby (11), Edward Seaby (9), Sarah Seaby (4) and Eliza Seaby (1).]
[Local records use Seaboy, Sabey and Seaby as the family name]
[Later] The house belongs to Rule Miller, and Jabez Chapman and family [page 26] are come to live with him in the room of the Seaboys.
Lodges here. [Appears Fulford originally got the landlord/tenant relationship the wrong way around!]
Rule Miller
A bad and drunken fellow.
[1841 Census: Rule Miller (aged 50), agricultural labourer.]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 21
Next door.
Joseph and Honor Wootton
He can't read, works for Mr Ellis. She can.
1. George Wootton, aged 18. Reads very little. Married.
2. Thomas Wootton, aged 15. Can read.
3. Naomi Wootton, aged 12. Can read and is in the Sunday School.
They were married at Orwell. Their children were Christened at Croydon. They have buried two children since last February, viz Eliza, March 15, and Ebenezer, June 21 1842. They are very respectable people and attend Church very regularly. She keeps a shop - and rather talkative and inclined to dissent.
[Contribution: Joseph Wooton, parish of Cocking (Cockayne) Hatley, Bedfordshire, married Honer Barron, March 28, 1815]
[1841 Census: Honor Wootten (aged 50) and children Naomi Wootten (10) and Ebinezer Wootten (4).]
[Known spelling variations: Wooton, Wootton, Wootten.]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 22
Next door.
John and Sarah Hilott
Reads a little. He works for Mr Wilkins. She can read. She is cousin to Ann Pearce. He is brother to Anne Hill and Bathsheba Chapman who is now gone to live at Hatley.
1. Thomas Hilott, aged 21. Works for Mr Wilkins.
2. John Hilott, aged 19. Works for Mr Law.
3. Eliza Hilott, aged 15. She was in the Sunday School but has lately left it. A steady girl.
4. Joseph Hilott, aged 5.
They were married in Croydon Church, and their children baptised here, and they attend Church. They do not bear the best character for honesty, and the young people are wild.
RSBS: (Thomas has since married.) [See page 29]
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 22 November 1840, Stephen Ilett, son of John and Sara, labourer; 21 May 1843, Samuel Ilot, of John and Sarah, labourer]
[1841 Census: John Ilot (aged 40), agricultural labourer, wife Sarah Ilot (40), children Thomas Ilot (15), agricultural labourer, John Ilot (15), Eliza Ilot (13), Joseph Ilot (4) and Stephen Ilot (8 months).]
[Known spelling variations: Ilot, Ilott, Ilett, Hilott, Haylett .]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 23
Next door.
William and Mary Payne
[He] Can't read, works for Mr Ellis. [She] Can read a little. She is daughter of John and Bathsheba Hagger (page 10). They attend church. She is a good needlewoman, and we have her often to work in the house.
1. Alfred Payne, 2 months old, Christened in Croydon Church.
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 20 November 1842, Alfred Payne, of William and Mary, labourer; 10 March 1845, Charles Payne, a twin, of William and Mary, labourer; 23 March 1845, Jane Payne, a twin, of William and Mary, labourer]
Lodge in the same house.
Thomas and Julia Payne
Father and mother of William. They can't read. He works for Mr Ellis. They both attend Church. She is an odd woman and a great gossip.
Also have another son, James a widower not resident in Croydon.
[Thomas Pain had taken part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and was sentenced to three month's imprisonment. In mitigation, the Reverend J D Hurst (Rector of Tadlow) said there was not a better labourer or a better man than Pain ]
[1841 Census: Thomas Paine (aged 60), agricultural labourer, wife Julia Paine (65), son William (30), agricultural labourer, and wife Mary (25).]
1851 Census: Thomas PAINE H M 75 Ag Lab pauper receiving parish relief b. Hatley East Julia Wf M 75 b. Wendy William S M 41 Ag Lab b. Wendy Mary Wf M 38 b. Croydon Alfred S U 8 b. Croydon Jane D U 6 b. Croydon Charles S U 3 b. Croydon Frederick S U 10 months b. Croydon
(Contribution: Julia Payne née Julia Wenham. James Payne later married Lydia Miller (née Lydia Hill, see pages 24 and 48) on 31 December 1852.)
[Known spelling variations: Payne, Pain, Paine.]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 24
Next door.
William and Anne Hill
He is was clerk in Wendy Church. She [Ann[e] Hill née Ann Ilot] can read very little. He works for Mr Ellis. She hardly ever attends Church - and their family is very disorderly. Lydia Miller (page 48) is their daughter.
1. John Hill, aged 24. Can read.
2. Samuel Hill, aged 15. A very idle boy, reads very little indeed. In the Sunday school.
3. Mary Hill, aged 13. In the Sunday school.
4. Rebecca Hill, aged 10. In the Sunday school.
They were married, and all their children Christened in Croydon Church - she is sister to John Hilot [Ilot].
John is gone to Canada - William Hill bears a good character. An elder son of William and Anne Hill [William] is just returned from abroad, discharged from the Army blind of the eye.
RSBS: (His name is Ilott, and he is since married, in November 1848, to Susan Warboys, a widow.)
[Contribution: William Ilot[t] [or Haylett] married to Susan/Susannah Warboys/Worboys November 1848 in Croydon. The 1851 census shows them with a child Jane and children from her former marriage. It shows his occupation as 'Chelsea Pensioner'.
Camdex has the marriage in 1848 for a Susanne Worboys and a William Ilott and the code indicates the marriage was at Croydon-cum-Clopton. FreeBMD has the marriage of a Susanna Warboys in Dec quarter 1848 Caxton Registration District and one of the other names on the same page is William Ilott.
William's army records give his name as 'Haylett'. The National Archives Catalogue gives details of William Haylett's pension record. The reference is WO 97/353/76, which means his is the 76th record on the microfilm WO 97/353. These records average 4-6 pages and give details about when he enlisted and was discharged and where he served. The Catalogue entry reads: "William Haylett, Born Croydon, Cambridgeshire, Served in 14th Foot Regiment; 66th Foot Regiment; 73rd Foot Regiment, Discharged aged 29, 1836-1845". Source: correspondence on ENG-CAM during May 2006]
[Note: Alternative local spellings: Hill and Hills. Also Ilot, Ilott, Hilot and Haylett.]
[1841 Census: William Hills (aged 40), agricultural labourer, wife Ann Hills (45), children John Hills (20), agricultural labourer, Lydia Hills (15), Samuel Hills (14), Mary Hills (10) and Rebecca Hills (8).]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 25
Next door.
Samuel and Kitty German (alias Lyon)
He can read, is a carpenter, has worked generally for Mr Carter. She can read a very little. He attends Church tolerably, she but seldom. She is not a very straightforward person in what she says.
1. Sarah German, aged 25. Can read. Has a base-born child one month old. Abraham Pearman [page 80] is said to be the father.
RSBS: (Sarah is a dressmaker. I have not heard anything against her since the above occurrence.)
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 12 March 1843, Elias Lyon alias Jarman, baseborn son of Sarah, dressmaker]
[1841 Census: Samuel Jarman (aged 45), carpenter, wife Kitty Jarman (45) and child Sarah Jarman (20).]
[Note: Alternative local spellings: German, Jarman]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 26
Next door.
James and Susan Warboys
He can read a very little. She reads a little. He works for Mr Lilly at Hatley.
They attend Croydon Church.
1. Eliza Warboys, aged 18. In service at Mr C Kings. Reads very little.
2. Mary Warboys, aged 14. Rather silly.
3. Hannah Warboys, aged 12. In the Sunday School.
4. James Warboys, aged 11. In the Sunday School.
5. Charles Warboys, aged 6.
6. Alfred Warboys, aged 2.
Eliza is married to Jabez Chapman, and they all live together. [Later] Gone to live with Rule Miller [see page 20].
Mary is dead. Hannah is very steady, learning dressmaking at Potton. Susan Warboys herself is a respectable, well spoken woman, and I believe the man is steady.
RSBS: (James Warboys died in the summer of 1846 and the widow is married to [William] Ilot (see page 24).)
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 9 May 1841, Alfred Warboys, son of James and Susan, labourer; 28 March 1845, David Warboys, of James and Susan, labourer]
[1841 Census: James Warboys (aged 35), agricultural labourer, wife Susan Warboys (30), children Eliza Warboys (16), Mary Warboys (12), Hannah Warboys (10), James Warboys (8), Charles Warboys (4) and Alfred Warboys (2 months).]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 27
Next door.
Sarah Lyon
Widow. Can't read. She is a carrier to Royston and Cambridge.
1. Mary Lyon, aged 19. Can't read, laid up with a bad leg.
2. Robert Lyon, aged 21.
3. William Lyon, aged 15.
4. Joseph [Josiah?] Lyon, aged 10. In the Sunday School.
She herself has a tolerable character, but all the rest of the family are very disreputable and wild. All the children Christened in Croydon Church. None of the attend Church, or but rarely. She does our carrying business.
[Joseph Lyon dismissed from Sunday School 1843. "[he was a...] very disorderly boy who had been used always to do as he pleased before I came, and would not submit to discipline and disturbed the school." - Rev Francis Fulford]
In the same house
James and Mary Lyon
[Aged] 26. Son of the above. Can read. Nobody knows how he lives. He is just returned from prison where he has been confined for poaching etc.
1. Levi Lyon, aged 5. Has been christened.
2. Emily Lyon, aged 1. Has not.
He has taken out a game certificate this year!!
RSBS: (Sent again to prison in July 1847 for one and half years for carrying lead that had been stolen from Wimpole Mansion.)
In the same house
Robert Lyon
Aged and infirm.
[1841 Census: Sarah Lyon (aged 60), James Lyon (25), agricultural labourer, Mary Lyon (25), Mary Lyon (15), Robert Lyon (60), agricultural labourer, William Lyon (13), agricultural labourer, Josiah Lyon (10), agricultural labourer, and Levi Lyon (3). A Mary Lyon (30) is also listed next door (page 28).]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 28
Next door.
Thomas Pestill
A shoemaker. A woman of the name of [Mary] Lyon lives with him - not his wife. She is a Wimpole woman, and relative to the Lyons next door. He has a wife. I have remonstrated with him. I presented him at the Visitation, but without any effect.
[1841 Census: Thomas Pestell (aged 35), shoemaker, Mary Lyon (30), and apprentice John Wynn (12).]
[Wimpole Parish Records have a Mary Lyon baptised on 18 November 1810, daughter of William and Mary.]
[Alternative local spellings: Pestill, Pestel and Pestell.]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Page 29
Next door.
Thomas Nash
A widower. His wife [Anne] was a gipsy and they used until very recently to live in a tent in a lane towards Hatley. He can't read.
1. Emily [Emma?] Nash, aged 17. Can read a little.
2. Isabel Nash. At the Sunday School.
3. Henry Nash.
Emily is not a very steady girl and their home is the most destitute, comfortless place.
[Above family entry crossed through]
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 18 June 1841, Henry Nash, son of Thomas and Anne, labourer]
[1841 Census: Thomas Nash (35), agricultural labourer, children Emma Nash (12), Isibell Nash (5) and Henry Nash (4). Also living here at the time of the census was Sarah Chapman (15). See also note on page 87.]
RSBS: (Thomas Hilott [Ilot], wife and child live here now - since he married and he is become a steady man.) [see page 22]
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 30 March 1845, Aaron Ilot, son of Thomas and Sarah, labourer]
[Above transcription checked against original document 28 August 2008]
Return to Page 19 (Annotated)
Return to Page 19
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 30
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 30 (Annotated)
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
In the first instance please contact the website with details.
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