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Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).

Pages 30 to 39 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 30 to 39 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription.


The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

Return to Page 29 (Annotated)
Return to Page 29
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 40
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 40 (Annotated)
Page 30
Next door
William and Sarah Pateman
They can neither read. He was a widower and has three sons by his first wife [Alice Ingrey] living in the parish, and one daughter, Mary, wife of James King. She has one son by her first husband [named Kidman presumably] who lives with them.
Allen Kidman aged 23.
He is now in prison for theft and is a wild drinking fellow. He was christened in Croydon Church, where they were married; they are not often in Church. [this paragraph is crossed through]
RSBS: (She is now dead, as is her son. Old Pateman comes now regularly to Church.)
[1841 Census: William Pateman (aged 55), agricultural labourer, and Sarah Pateman (50).]
[Contribution: William's first wife was Alice (nee Ingrey) - their children were Elizabeth baptised 1807, William 1809, James 1813, Mary 1815 (page 60), and John 1817 (page 65). William and Sarah's children were Timothy 1822, Ann 1824 and Samuel 1826.]
[Two men named Kidman took part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and were both sentenced to seven year's transportation]
Page 31
Next door
Thomas and Martha Lyon
Can read, son of Christopher Lyon. She cannot. They were married in Croydon church where their son was Christened - they attend church occasionally, she more frequently. She a great talker and gossip.
1. William Lyon, aged 18. Reads a very little - not a steady lad.
Lodging here.
Thomas Carter
Son of ____ Carter, a very drunken man, [who is] brother to Thomas Carter, Mr Ellis's shepherd. [This Thomas Carter is...] Aged 27, he can read, works for Mr Elliston. Attends Church regularly, and is a very respectable young man.
RSBS: (I believe he has changed his lodging.)
[1841 Census: Martha Lyon (aged 35) and Thomas Carter (25), agricultural labourer.]
Page 32
Next house up the village
Jonathan and Jane Chapman
They can both read. She is daughter of Jane Thacker (page 2). He is son of William and Mary Chapman next door. They appear quiet steady people - but poor owing to his not having had constant work lately. They are not constantly at Church.
1. Emma Chapman, aged 10. In the Sunday School.
2. William Chapman, aged 8.
3. Job Chapman, aged 4.
4. Charlotte Chapman, aged 2.
They were married and their children Christened in Croydon Church. They are always in distress and difficulty - but I don't know that he drinks - but some bad management. They are going to move down to the farm lately occupied by Mr Jackson.
William Chapman (1787-?) = Mary Penderton (?-?)
? Titmus [1st] (?-?) = Jane ? (?-?)
Jonathan Chapman (1813-?) = Jane Titmus (?-?)
Emma Chapman (c1833-?)
William Chapman (c1835-?)
Job Chapman (c1839-?)
Charlotte Chapman (1840-?)
[1841 Census: Jonathen Chapman (aged 25), agricultural labourer, wife Jane Chapman (25), Emma Chapman (8), William Chapman (4), Job Chapman (2) and Charlotte Chapman (10 months).]
Page 33
Next door
William and Mary Chapman
Both read a little. He works for Mr King of Tadlow at Hatley. The old people are not very comfortable together.
1. Sarah Chapman, aged 23 - has a base-born child, Eliza [Rhoda], aged 7 months, Christened [11 December 1842] in Croydon Church.
RSBS: (since dead.)
John Chapman = Mary Bester
? Penderton = ?
William Chapman (1787-?) = Mary Penderton (?-?)
m.1806 Croydon
Jane Chapman (1809-?)
Jonathan Chapman (1813-?)
Mary Chapman (1818-?)
Sarah Chapman (c1820-?)
Tree: Avril Emery
[* Contribution: William Chapman baptised Guilden Morden 29 April 1787.]
In the same house.
Joseph and Mary Pell
He can't read. He is a very drunken man. She can a little. She's a quiet woman. He works at Wimpole for Lord Hardwicke.
1. Isaiah Pell, aged 4.
2. David Pell, aged 2.
3. Robert Pell, aged 4 months.
RSBS: (Dead. Robert died of inflammation in the chest 29 January 1843.)
They were married in Croydon Church and children Christened here. Pell belongs to Wimpole Parish*. Mary Pell is daughter of the above William and Mary Chapman.
William Pell = Sarah
William Chapman(1787-?) = Mary Penderton (?-?)
m.1806 Croydon
Joseph Pell (1817-?) = Mary Chapman (1818-?)
m.1837 Croydon
Isaiah Pell (1838-?)
David Pell (1840-?)
Robert Pell (1842-1843)
Jane Pell (1844-?)
Jonathon Pell (1846-?)
Francis Pell (1851-?)
Henry Pell (1841-?)
Joseph Pell (1853-?)
Thomas Alfred Pell (1855-1856)
Jonas Pell (1857-?)
Sarah Eliza Pell (1861-?)
Tree: Avril Emery
[* Contribution: Banns read 17 May 1837 in Wimpole church - Joseph Pell, bachelor of this parish and Mary Chapman, spinster of Croydon.]
[1841 Census: William Chapman (aged 50), agricultural labourer, and wife Mary Chapman (50). In the same house: Mary Pell (20), Isaiah Pell (2) and David Pell (8 months).]
Page 34
Next door
James and Emma Chapman
They can both read - he is brother to the last-named William. He regularly attends a dissenting Meeting House in Morden. She attends Church constantly - she is a canting talker.
1. John Chapman, aged 28. Can read.
2. Thomas Chapman, aged 24. Can read. Lodges at Susan Titmus's.
3. Naomi Chapman, aged 20. Lately gone into service.
4. Edward Chapman, aged 12. In the Sunday school.
5. Jane Chapman, aged 8. In the Sunday school.
They were married and their children Christened at Croydon Church.
She is half sister to Susan Titmus.
RSBS: (John and Thomas are gone to Canada.) [See letter Page 49]
[James Chapman was a prosecution witness in the trial of those involved in the 1832 Croydon Riot, testifying that Anderson Storey forced him and a fellow-labourer to join the party to break the threshing machine. ]
[1841 Census: James Chapman (aged 50), agricultural labourer, wife Emana Chapman (50), John Chapman (25), agricultural labourer, Edward Chapman (11) and Jane Chapman (8).]
Page 35
Next door
James and Catherine Lee
He can read very well. She a little. He is the son of Elizabeth Lee (page 68). They attend Church very regularly, and are respectable people. She is very dirty. He sings in the choir when he is well enough, but he has been ill for some months with a liver complaint - has now been in hospital and is now an outpatient.
1. Sarah Lee, aged 10. In the Sunday school. Disorderly girl.
2. Anne Lee, aged 8. In the Sunday school. Disorderly girl.
3. John Lee, aged 4.
4. Richard Lee, aged 2.
They were married at Wendy and their children were Christened in Croydon Church. Samuel [William?] Graves, who lodges at Susan Titmus', is her cousin and has his meals here.
He is now Sunday schoolmaster.
RSBS: (No longer such.)
RSBS: (Later: All filthy people.)
[1841 Census: James Lee (aged 25), agricultural labourer, wife Cathrine Lee (30), children Sarah Lee (8), Ann Lee (7) and John Lee (2).]
Page 36
Next door
Christopher and Ruth Lyon
He was a widower. Francis [Thomas?] Lyons is his son (page 31). He can't read, his wife can. She was a daughter of Mary Storey by her first husband (Chapman page 85). They have two children.
1. Mary Lyon, aged 26. Can read. RSBS: (Married, see below)
2. Samuel Lyon, aged 23. Can read. RSBS: (Dead, see below)
They were married and their children Christened in Croydon Church. He works and sleeps at Mrs Casbourn's. She is an abusive woman. The daughter Mary bears a most shocking bad character. She has been living with James Gates and has been 'asked' in Church, but the Banns have run out.
Samuel was a Carpenter, and a free-liver; has been ill with cough and inflammation which has turned to dropsy. I have visited him during a most painful illness, which he bore with great patience, and assumed to show an humble and penitent spirit.
RSBS: (Died 11th July 1843.)
RSBS: (Later: Mary Lyon was married to James Gates 30 January 1843, and they live with the old Gates Simpson, the late clerk.)
(Having had the opportunity to carefully check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I suspect from the chronology of this entry that the comments shown in blue above will also be found to fall into this catagory.)
[1841 Census: Christopher Lyon (aged 60), carpenter, and Ruth Lyon (50).]
Page 37
Next door
William and Ruth Endersby
He can read and is the son of John and Mary Endersby [page 57].
She can't read, and is daughter of Mary Clarke (page 81).
She had a base-born child [Charles Clarke] by some other man before her marriage, which lives with her mother [see page 81], but it is cause of disquietude now at times between her and her husband. She appears a very clean person. He is often out of work, and is of a surly dogged temper.
1. John, aged 6 months.
They were married and their child Christened in Croydon Church.
[1841 Census: William Edersby (aged 25), no occupation given, and Ruth Edersby (20).]
[The following contribution is from Helen and Peter Waller in Australia (Peter is a great-great-great-grandson of William and Ruth):
ruth and william ensbey
Ruth Ensbey (1820-1902)
William Ensbey (1819-1897)
William and Ruth Endersby, and sons John and Alfred Endersby, emigrated to Australia in 1954 arriving in 1855. With them was Charles Clarke said to be Ruth's son. When they arrived, William changed the family name from Endersby to Ensbey. The family settled in Lawrence, on the banks of the Clarence River near Grafton on the New South Wales north coast and he became a very successful farmer as well as establishing the Baptist Church in the area. The first services of this church were held in William and Ruth's home and he later donated the land for a church building. The original farm is still in the possession of one of William's descendants.]
ensbey family group c1902
This family photo of the Ensbeys in Australia is taken from a poor copy. It shows Ruth Ensbey (born Ruth Clarke in Croydon 1820) in the centre, not long before she died in 1902, flanked by son John Ensbey (baptised Croydon 1842) and his wife Hannah, and surrounded by most of John's children and grandchildren. ]
John Endersby = Mary Endersby
Richard Clarke = Mary Clarke
William Endersby (1819-1897) = Ruth Endersby (1820-1902)
 | (baseborn)
Charles Clarke (c1835-?)
John Endersby (1842-?)
Alfred Endersby (1845-?)
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845: 28 August 1842, John Endersby,of William and Ruth, labourer; 11 May 1845, Alfred Endersby, of William and Ruth, labourer]
[Note local spellings of surname: Endersby, Edersby, (and in Australia) Ensbey]
Page 38
Next door
John and Edith Hopkins
He can read. He works for Mr Jackson. She cannot. She is daughter of Anne Thomas widow.
1. Mary Hopkins, aged 11. In the Sunday school.
2. Samuel Hopkins, aged 4.
3. Rebecca Hopkins, aged 1.
They were married and their children Christened in Croydon Church. She has bad health and her husband is not kind to her.
RSBS: (She is a most fretful tiresome woman. The husband drinks - seldom at Church.)
[John Hopkins had taken part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and was sentenced to six month's imprisonment]
[1841 Census: John Hopkins (aged 40), agricultural labourer, wife Eaddy Hopkins (30), and children Mary Hopkins (9) and Samuell Hopkins (2). Also living with them was Ann Thomas (50).]
Page 39
Over the way - at the shop
William and Eliza Lyon
- and sundry children.
They keep a village shop, are of late very regular at Church. The family are rather boisterous and rough. Eliza Lyon is the daughter of John Simpson, the late clerk.
RSBS: (Very seldom at church now, and, as I consider, a very ill-conditioned family.)
grave in croydon churchyard
Grave in Croydon Churchyard.

"In memory of
Eliza the beloved wife of William Lyon
who died September 2 1868 in her 62nd year.

"Our loving mother rested here
and still to us her memory's dear
But through the loss bring grief and pain
We hope to meet in heavon again."

also of William Lyon
who died July 19 1873 aged 73 years"
? = ?
John Sim(p)son (c1785-c1856) = Elizabeth Lenton
William Lyon (c1800-1873) = Eliza Simpson (c1806-1868)
Emma Lyon (1825-1834)
Izabell Lyon (1828-?)
Ellen Lyon (1830-?)
Hezikeih Lyon (c1833-?)
Emily [Emma?] Lyon (1837-?)
Elias Lyon (1839-?)
Rebecca Lyon (1841-?) = Joseph Hadder
Hosen Lyon (1843-?)
[Croydon Parish Baptisms 1840-1845: 19 September 1841, Rebecca Lyon, daughter of William and Eliza, shopkeeper; 22 October 1843, Hosen Lyon, of William and Eliza, shopkeeper]
[1841 Census: William Lyon (aged 35), baker, wife Eliza Lyon (35), children Izabell Lyon (12), Ellen Lyon (10), Hezikeih Lyon (male)(8), Emma [Emily?] Lyon (4) and Emma [Elias?] Lyon (2).]
Return to Page 29 (Annotated)
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(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 40
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 40 (Annotated)
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
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