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Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).

Pages 60 to 69 (Annotated)

This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis" pages 60 to 69 inclusive. This annotated version includes additional background material, family research contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.

Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages as an uninterrupted transcription.


The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.

Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.

Return to Page 59 (Annotated)
Return to Page 59
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 70
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 70 (Annotated)
Page 60
Clopton Farm
- under the same roof as the last [page 59]
James and Mary King
He works for Mr Elliston at Wimpole. She is daughter of William Pateman (page 30).
1. Alfred King, aged 6.
2. Emily King, aged 5.
3. Ellen King, aged 3.
4. Sarah [Ann] King, aged 1.
They were married and the children Christened at Croydon Church. They attend Church.
RSBS: (King is now a sort of overseer for Mr Elliston - he is a steady man - but said not to be very good tempered to the workmen; she is a very quick, good sort of woman.)
[1841 Census: James King (aged 30), agricultural labourer, wife Mary King (30), Alfred King (5), Emmelia King (3) and Ellen King (1).]
[Contribution: James King (1808 Littlington) married Mary Pateman (bap 1815 Bassingbourn) at Croydon-cum-Clopton on 21 March 1836 with children Alfred (bap 1836), Emily (1837), Ellen (1839) and Sarah (1841).]
Page 61
Old Larkins [William]
Father of the Publican [page 14?], rents some land and is a cattle jobber and drover. He has been at church two or three times. He is a civil old man.
William Larkins and Wife
and son Joseph Larkins
A butcher, drunken, idle, abusive. She [Emma Larkins] has very bad health. Her friends are in good circumstances at Morden. Larkins is never at Church, she but seldom on account of her health - a good sort of woman.
RSBS: (Later note: Died 10th October 1847.)
[Above paragraph is crossed through]
[1841 Census: William Larkins (aged 70), drover, William Larkins (25), butcher, wife Emma Larkins (25) and son Joseph Larkins (4).]
RSBS: ( This farmhouse has been converted into four tenements, one of which is occupied as above.
a third second by Isaac and Sarah Thompson (see page 52).
a third by Joseph and Mary Darnell [Darter/Darler/Darlow] (see page 55).
a fourth by John and Mary Endersby (see page 57).
RSBS: (Later: The Larkins' have quitted this house, which is now occupied by John Simons and wife.)
Page 62
[Farm above Rectory]
Chandler Merry
Farmer - churchwarden - a man of good private property - and a very steady respectable man. He has an estate of his own at Orwell, holds one of Downing College [Farm above Rectory] in which he resides, and has just taken a large farm of Mr Gape's [Manor Farm] up on the hill, above the Rectory.
[Mr Merry's first wife died during the summer of 1840.] His [second] wife [Ann] is a London lady - they have 2 children. They are very civil and friendly.
[1841 Census: Chandler Meery (25), farmer, wife Ann Meery (20). Also living here at the time of the census were: Emily Robertson (15), Maria Edwards (15), servant, Samuel Greaves (25), agricultural labourer, and John Nelson (14), agricultural labourer.]
[Contribution: Chandler Merry (1812-1864) was born in Orwell. The "Cambridge Chronicle" of 10 July 1841 reported that "Chandler Merry... attempted to put an end to this existence by cutting his own throat with a razor, and so far succeeded that his life is despaired of...". He happily survived and married his second wife Ann (Abrahams) in London and it is understood they eventually had eight children. In the 1851 census for Croydon-cum-Clopton it was recorded he was 39, a farmer of 600 acres, and employer to 21 men and 8 boys. ]
[John Nelson - see contribution on page 83]
Page 63
Thomas Jackson
Farmer, has had a former wife; and his wife a former husband, and each had children, but none by this marriage. A civil friendly man - she a very violent temper.
RSBS: (Removed to the farm formerly occupied by Charles and Emily King, deceased (see page 70). The farmhouse is divided into tenements (see page 91).)
Gravestone in Croydon Churchyard
[Grave Stones in Croydon Churchyard.
(right) "In memory of Thomas Jackson who died January 30 1863 aged 73 years"
(left) "Ann the wife of Thomas Jackson" then most obscured.]
[1841 Census: Thomas Jackson aged 50 and Mary Jackson aged 40. At the time of the census, Ann Thompson (aged 13), servant, and James Paine (25), agricultural labourer, were also living here.]
Page 64
In the close near Mr Jackson's
Mary Edwards
Aged and a widow, she has had two husbands.
To her first, who was called Richardson, she was married at Great Warley church, Essex, and by him she has a son aged 41 and blind who lives with her, William Richardson.
She was married to her second husband Edwards at Croydon. She can't read - is very constant at Church - unless prevented by illness - her son generally attends Eversden Meeting Independents, and is a decided dissenter.
She is grandmother to Samuel Richardson (page 5), and also to Anne Thompson (page 52).
Gravestone in Croydon Churchyard
[Grave Stone in Croydon Churchyard.
"William Richardson died 1875 aged 75 years"]
[1841 Census: Mary Edwards (aged 65) and William Richardson (40), agricultural labourer.]
Page 65
Next door
John and Mary Pateman
Can read very little, works for Mr Ellis. She can't read. He is son of William Pateman (page 30) - she is daughter of John Lee (page 68). They were married and their child Christened at Croydon. He generally attends a Meeting House at Great Morden. She is very constant at Church - and is a Communicant.
1. John Pateman, aged 5. In the Sunday school
RSBS: (His brother lives with him. His name is [left blank]. He works for Mr Pearman.) [RSBS entry is crossed through]

RSBS: (Later: He has left here now.)

[Contribution: John Pateman (bap 1817 Croydon) married Mary Lee in Croydon in 1837. They had children John (1837), Martha (1845-1847), and Martha (1847).]
[Contribution: Eight years later John and Mary Pateman left for Australia on the 'David McIver'. Mary died on the voyage. John arrived in Sydney, NSW, in 1852. He later remarried to Ann Kentsbeer, had six children and died in 1904 at Lower Ulmarra at the age of 87.]
[1841 Census: John Pateman (aged 25), agricultural labourer, wife Mary Pateman (20) and son John Pateman (3).]
Page 66
Henry Spencer
A widower, can read, brother of John Spencer (page 51).
1. Anne Spencer, aged 21.
Has but this one child at home - one son has lately enlisted.
He is shepherd for Mr George, and is but seldom at church. She occasionally is at church and sometimes attends Bassingbourn Independent Meeting.
He is lately married to Betsy and has a child.
RSBS: (She [Anne] has lately attended church more regularly - she is supposed to be likely to marry William Lee. Mary Spencer, the eldest daughter, is lately married to Hosea Simpson, and they live here at present, I believe.)
RSBS: (Later: Anne is married to William Lee.)
[1841 Census: Henry Spencer (aged 40), agricultural labourer, and daughter Ann Spencer (15).]
Page 67
William and Mary Gentle
Can't read, works for Mr George. She can read. She was a widow of the name of Allen -
has a son ____ Allen - just discharged from the Marines with a pension and settled at Eversden.
1. Philip Gentle, aged 22. Now in goal for a riot at Caxton Work House.
2. Joseph Gentle, aged 21. Now living at Eversden as a Carpenter.
3. Marianne Gentle, aged 18. Silly.
They attend church very constantly. She used always to go to Eversden Meeting, and now does once a month. He has been a very drinking man; has much improved. She is a very respectable woman.
RSBS: (Philip is gone to Canada. Joseph is married and settled at Eversden.)
[1841 Census: William Gentle (aged 50), agricultural labourer, wife Mary Gentle (65), Joseph Gentle (20), carpenter, and Mary Gentle (15).]
Page 68
John and Elizabeth Lee
He can't read, works for Mr Merry. She can read a little.
1. Joseph Jerah Terah Lee, aged 18. Works for Mr Merry. [see *** contribution below]
2. David Lee, aged 14. In the Sunday school. Works for Mr Rust.
3. Eliza Lee, aged 12. In the Sunday school.
Joseph is very steady, David is not.
They have many other children in this parish (pages 17, 35, 53, 65 and a son at Hatley etc); a married daughter who lived in the same house died in her confinement in April 1842, named Elizabeth How[s], leaving an infant child which sometimes stays with its grandmother. They are very regular at church, and are very steady, respectable people.
[Joseph/Jerah/Terah Lee left Sunday School "creditably, July 1843 having been a year and a quarter in the school, and a steady boy. Withdrew [from Confirmation] by his own desire" - FF]
[David Lee dismissed from Sunday School 1843. "[he was a...] very disorderly boy who had been used always to do as he pleased before I came, and would not submit to discipline and disturbed the school." - FF]
RSBS: (Lydia, an older daughter, is come home to live, when her brother married - whose house she used to keep.)
? Lee (?-?) = ? ? (?-?)
? = ?
John Lee (?-?) = Elizabeth ? (?-?)
William Lee [p17][p53] (c1812-?) = (1) Mary (2) Ann Spencer
Thomas Lee (1814-1884) = Ann Oliver [family went to Australia]
John Lee (1815-?)
James Lee (c1816-?)
Mary Lee (1819-1852) = John Pateman [family went to Australia]
Lydia Lee (1823-?)
Terah Lee (1825-1914) = Sarah Ann Cox (in Australia)
Elizabeth Lee (1826-1842) = Joel How
David Lee (1829-?)
Emily [Eliza] Lee (c1831-?)
[Croydon Baptisms 1840-1845:
11 June 1843: Thomas Lee, aged 28 years 8 months, of John and Elizabeth, labourer.
11 June 1843: Mary Lee, born 13 February 1819, of John and Elizabeth, labourer.
11 June 1843: Lydia Lee, born 12 January 1823, of John and Elizabeth, labourer.
11 June 1843: Terah Lee, born 17 April 1825, of John and Elizabeth, labourer. *** (see contribution below)
16 June 1844: Emily [Eliza?] Lee, aged 12, of John and Elizabeth, labourer.
25 August 1850: John Lee, born 25 October 1815, son of John and Elizabeth, labourer.
25 August 1850: David Lee, born 6 June 1829, son of John and Elizabeth, labourer.]
[1841 Census: John Lee (aged 55), agricultural labourer, wife Elizabeth Lee (55), and children Elizath Lee (15), David Lee (12), and Eliza Lee (9). Also living here at the time of the census were: Joel Hows (aged 20), blacksmith, and Elizabeth Hows (15) [see note on page 17].]
[*** Contribution
"I'm referring to Page 68 of the Speculum Gregis which mentions Joseph/Jerah Lee.
Every other reference refers to him as Terah, the name coming from a biblical king. This makes me wonder if "Jerah" is a mistranslation from the Speculum Gregis? Or perhaps an original error?
Terah was born in nearby Melbourn on 17 April 1825; and baptised at Croydon on 11 June 1843 (as Terah). I note that this was around the time he left Sunday School and wthdraw from confirmation (late baptisms are quite common with this Lee family). I wonder if his original name was Joseph but he changed it to Terah on baptism?
Some time c1850 he went to New South Wales in Australia where he married my great-great-grand-aunt Sarah Ann Cox in 1856. They were members of the strong local Baptist community which probably explains the late baptisms and the withdrawal from Anglican confirmation. Terah was a farmer but also seems to have conducted Baptist burials - at least he appears as undertaker on one death certificate that I have (for his mother-in-law's brother-in-law!). He died at Maclean NSW in 1914 with his age understated as 70 - apparently calculated from his baptism not his birth - but interestingly (?) also the age at death of King Terah on the Old Testament (three score and ten, I seem to recall).
Two of Terah's siblings also went to NSW: Thomas Lee (1814-1884) [and wife Ann Oliver?] in 1849 and Mary (Lee) (1819-1852) and John Pateman in 1852 [on the 'David McIver']. Although Mary died on the voyage, her husband and children settled there. Several of the probably-related Lees of nearby Meldreth also came to NSW and settled in the same area (Northern Rivers District) and were also members of the Baptist community there. They also married into my huge Cox family tree in this area.
There are eight Terahs altogether in my tree, this one being the original. Two nephews called Terah Lee stayed in Cambridgeshire (sons of John and David); then two in NSW - his son Terah George Lee; his nephew Terah Lee (son of Thomas); and his grandsons Terah Albert Lee, Terah E Lee, and Ernest Terah T Parnell. Another popular biblical name in the family was Hezakiah (other fancy Lee names include Theophilus, Theodosia, Adolphos, Druscilla, Augustus...).
The Speculum Gregis has provided some interesting background. I'm glad to say that most of my connections were deemed by FF to be "respectable" rather than "filthy"! Rev Fulford certainly had a sharp edge to his pen at times.
Steve Sims, Australia, April 2006"]
Page 69
David and Kezia Law
He is brother to William Law (page 11). She is sister to Mrs Newman and Mrs Graves.
They have four children - are steady respectable people and generally at church.
[1841 Census: David Law (aged 25), agricultural labourer, Kisian Law (25) and Ann Law (1). Also living here at the time of the census was: David Allen (10), agricultural labourer.]
Return to Page 59 (Annotated)
Return to Page 59
(Annotated Text)
Forward to Page 70
(Annotated Text)
Continue to Page 70 (Annotated)
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
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