search tips advanced search
Detail from the Last Supper stained glass window in All Saints Parish Church Croydon, in memory of Sophia Mirabella Sandilands, wife of the rector 1859 Wimpole Past Logo
Speculum Gregis 1843
'An Account of all the Inhabitants of the Parish of Croydon
in the County of Cambridgeshire commencing from 1 January 1843'
by Reverend Francis Fulford 1803-1868 (Rector at Croydon 1841-1845).
Additional notes by Reverend R S B Sandilands (Rector 1845-1864).
Pages 1 to 9 (Annotated)
This is the annotated text of the "Speculum Gregis", pages 1 to 9 inclusive, with additional family research, contributions from readers, excerpts from the 1841 census, and some related photographs.
Also available is the basic text of the same 9 pages without the additional background material.
The wording used in both versions was originally a distillation of three separate transcriptions of the original hand-written text. Where the texts differed, I followed the majority unless historical evidence suggests I should do otherwise. I have subsequently transcribed the text direct from the original document so the corrected transcription used on this website (currently pages 1 to 29 inclusive) is therefore my own.
Detailed explanatory notes are given at the foot of each page.
  Back to The Preface (Annotated Text) Pages: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09  
1 Page 1 [View as Basic Text]
"I have begun the list at the Arrington End and then gone straight up the road.

Richard Carter [and wife Eliza, née White]
Formerly kept the 'Carpenter's Arms' [later the 'Axe & Compasses' PH], has been in penury difficulties - is a carpenter- and now lives in the Yard adjoining the 'Queen Adelaide' Public House; his wife is sister to Mrs Thomas Larkins [née Elizabeth White, see Page 14]. He has three daughters and two sons [see Carter family tree in right hand column]

Samuel Bartel and Mary his wife.
They have been keeping the public house for about 1 year. He wants to get a licence from the Magistrates - but failed this year (1845) owing to an informality in his notices. I refused to sign his petition this year - and should do so again - as a girl, his servant, complained to me of his improper treatment of her, and his character (entrè nous) is notorious in that line. His wife is a dawdle, and his children unruly." [see Bartel family tree in right hand column]

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:
The original 'Axe & Compasses' Public House before 1915
The original "Axe and Compasses" Public House c1914 showing publican Walter James Tiller with his children. This is one of the few modern-day locations in the "Speculum Gregis" that can be positively identified.
The 'Axe & Compasses' Public House destroyed by fire in 1915
Photo from Ena Bowles (great granddaughter of Walter Tilly)
The pub was destroyed by fire shortly afterwards in c1915. The publican, Walter James Tiller, and his family (seen in photos above and below) had to live in an out-house during the rebuild. The new pub (see below) bore little resemblance to the old building. Walter Tilly was sent to France during WWI, contracted TB in the trenches, and subsequently died at the pub in 1921 following treatment at Papworth Hospital. He was buried at Croydon church on 2 August 1921, aged 43.
The 'Axe & Compasses' Public House rebuilt after the 1915 fire
Photo from Ena Bowles (great granddaughter of Walter Tilly)
The 'Axe & Compasses' finally closed as a pub in 1937. It is now a private dwelling:
The 'Axe & Compasses' as a private dwelling in 2009
© Google Street View 2009.
"Your photo of the "Axe and Compass[es]" is not 1900 - it is probably just prior to the fire of 1915 - the family is my family - they show Walter Tiller with his children - one of them is my mother Maria May Tiller who was born in 1910 in Croydon - Walter died in about 1921 as a result of injuries of the first World War. I have traced my mother, to her mother, Charlotte Tiller, then Maria Gates, then Charlotte Gates and then Patience Knights, all from the Croydon area. My mother always talked of her childhood in Croydon with fond memories and told me many tales of the village life!"
- Ruth Knipe via Guest Book, 2009.
Speculative Carter Family Tree
Carter = ? James White = Sarah
(?-?)    (?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
Richard Carter (c1800-1853) = Eliza White (1804-1848)
  marr Oct 1825 at Croydon Church  
  Cathrine Carter (c1826-?)
George Carter (c1829-?)
Jane Carter (c1833-?)
Rebecca Carter (c1835-?)
Boy (?-?)
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis 'names' shown in bold.

See also the 1841 Census (Page One)

Speculative Bartel Family Tree
(Alternative spellings: Bartell, Bartle)

James Bartel = Mary (?) Harden = ?
(c1766-?)    (c1772-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
Samuel Bartel (c1809-?) = Mary A Harden (c1810-?)
  marr Oct 1829 at Croydon Church  
  James Bartel (c1833-?)
Samuel Bartel (bap 1837)
Thomas Bartel (bap 1839)
Sally/Sarah Bartel (bap 1841)
Selina Bartel (bap 1843)
Charles Bartel (bap 1845)
George Bartel (c1848-?)
Jane Ann Bartel (c1850-?)
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis 'names' shown in bold.

See also the 1841 Census (Page One)

Notes (Bartel):
[1] Samuel Bartle took part in the 1832 Croydon Riot and was sentenced to three month's imprisonment.
[2] James Bartle dismissed from Sunday School. "Entered the School January 1843 aged 11 years. He attended very irregularly, was idle and very disorderly and was dismissed by me May 1845" - Rev Francis Fulford.
[3] 1851 Census:
- Samuel Bartell head marr 42 ag lab born Croydon,
- Mary A Bartell wife 41 b Somerstown, London,
- James Bartell son unmarr 18 ag lab b Croydon,
- Samuel Bartell son unmarr 14 ag lab b Croydon,
- Thomas Bartell son unmarr 13 ag lab b Croydon,
- Sally Bartell dau 10 b Croydon,
- Selena Bartell dau 7 b Croydon,
- Charles Bartell son 5 b Croydon,
- George Bartell son 3 b Croydon,
- Jane Ann Bartell dau 1 b Croydon,
- James Bartell relation widower 85 Ag lab pauper receiving parish relief, born Cockayne Hatley, Bedfordshire.

Acknowledgements and thanks to Ruth Knipe for help and information about the "Axe & Compasses" and the Tiller family.
2 Page 2 [View as Basic Text]
"Near the 'Carpenter's Arms' or 'Axe and Compasses'.

James Thacker and (2nd) Jane (née Hagger).
Aged people, can both read. He attends Croydon Church: she says she attends Wendy Church, having long been used to it. She is mother by her first husband (William Titmus/Titchmarsh) to William, John and James Titmus, Jane Chapman (Jonathan's wife) and Mary Blowes. He has children by her first husband by a former wife (Jane Wormer 1788-1825), (1) Martha Spencer [page 51], and (2) William Thacker (page 16). [the known children from both of the earlier marriages are listed in the right hand column.]

Lives in the same house
James Titmus and Elizabeth [née Cartwright] his wife.
Can both read. She was a servant living at Mrs George's. They were married in Croydon Church on October 14 1842. They have one infant [Jane Titmus, bap 28 January 1844]
I believe James Titmus and his family are just going to move up to the middle of the village.

Richard Hagger,
aged and disabled in one hand, brother to John Hagger, has his meals here but sleeps at John and Sarah Pedler's." ["Pedley", see page 8 below]

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:
The cottage near the Axe and Compasses (?)
© Google Street View 2009.
This is probably the Thacker's cottage "Near the Axe and Compasses". The end of a cottage can just be glimpsed on the left-hand side of the 1914 photograph in page 1 above. It is tempting to believe that at least parts date from the time of the "Speculum Gregis" as the current cottage and wooden outbuilding exactly match the position and footprint shown on c1850 maps.
Alternative local spellings: Titmus, Titmas, Titmous and Titmarsh.
Alternative local spellings: Thacker and Thatcher.
James Thacker married twice, his first wife being Jane Wormer, who he married on 14 October 1806 at Dunton Bedfordshire. After the death of Jane Wormer in 1825 at Croydon, he married his second wife Jane Titmus (/Titchmarsh) nee Hagger daughter of James Hagger and Jane Peters.
(1) Children of James Thacker and Jane Wormer:
     William Thaker (c1808-1862) [p16] = Emma Ashford [p16]
     David Thaker (c1811-?)
     Charlotte Thaker (c1813-?)
     Mary Thaker (c1818-?)
     Ann Thaker (c1819-?)
     Martha Thaker (c1821-?) [p51]
     Jane Thaker c1825-?)
Jane Hagger also married twice, her first husband being William Titmus (/Tichmarsh) who she married on 1st December 1804 at Croydon. After the death of William Titmus (/Titchmarsh) in 1827 at Croydon, she married James Thacker on 24 July 1830 at Croydon.
(2) Children of William Titmus/Titmarsh and Jane Hagger:
     Mary Titmus (c1805-?) [p82] = ? William Blow(e)s
     William Titmus (c1809-?) [p5] = Lydia ?
     John Titmus (c1810-?) [p6] = Eunice Simpson
     Jane Titmus (c1813-?) = Jonathan Chapman
     James Titmus (c1809) [p2] = Elizabeth Cartwright
[Contributed by Dennis Tokley 2004]

Speculative Thacker/Wormer Family Tree
(Alternative spellings: Thacker, Thaker, Thatcher.)

Thacker = ? William Wormer = Ann
(?-?)    (?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
(1st) James Thacker = (1st) Jane Wormer
  (1783-1861)          (c1787-1825)  
  married 14 October 1806 at Dunton, Beds  
  William Thaker (1808-1862)
     David Thaker (1811-?)
     Charlotte Thaker (c1813-?)
     Mary Thaker (1818-1826)
     Ann Thaker (1821-1821)
     Martha Thaker (c1821-?)
     Jane Thaker c1825-?)

Tree: Dennis Tokley (additional details greatly appreciated)
Primary Speculum Gregis 'names' are shown in bold.
See also the 1841 Census (Page One)

Speculative Titmus/Hagger Family Tree
(Alternative spellings: Titmus, Titmas, Titmous,
Titchmarsh and Titmarsh.

Titmus = ? James Hagger = Jane Peters
(?-?)    (?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
William Titmus/Titchmarsh = (1st) Jane Hagger
  (c1778-1827)            (1782-1863)  
  married 1st December 1804  
  Mary Titmus (c1805-?) = ? Blowes
     William Titmus (c1809-?) [p5] = Lydia ?
     John Titmus (c1810-?) [p6] = Eunice Simpson
     Jane Titmus (c1813-?) = Jonathan Chapman
     James Titmus (c1809) [p2] = Elizabeth

Tree: Dennis Tokley (further details would be greatly appreciated).
Primary Speculum Gregis 'names' shown in bold.

Notes (Thacker):
[1] Rate Book 10 May 1852. Name of Occupier: James Thacker Senior. Owner: Mr Phillips. Premises name: Mr Phillip's Cottage
Acknowledgements and thanks to Dennis Tokley for help and information about the Thacker/Titmus families.
3 Page 3 [View as Basic Text]
"The next house towards the village.
William Pearce and Anne.
Both can read. He works for Mr Merry.
   1. William Pearce, aged 14. In the Sunday School.
   2. Isaac Pearce, aged 12. Can read.
Both christened at Croydon Church. I was obliged to turn Isaac out of the Sunday School, he was so unruly and turbulent. William is the same at times.
There are also some daughters older than the two sons. Lydia, aged about 19, was married in Croydon Church to Richard Barton of Hinxworth, Hertfordshire, October 31 1842. There is another daughter Mary, out at Service, who has had a baseborn child, which lives with its grandfather. It is aged 4 years and is called Arthur, but has not been Christened (later baptised 16 May 1847 at Croydon as son of Sarah, born September 1838).
They all attend Church very regularly. Anne Pearce seems to be of a peevish temper [pencilled insert] but they have great trials.
[Darker ink - later?] Pearce has been obliged to give over work from infirmity.

[Seeking record of marriage and Ann's maiden name. Not found in Croydon Records. Sarah Hilott, wife of John (page 22), said to be cousin to Ann Pearce.]

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:
Possibly cottage near Church Farm? Cottage no longer in existence. Site believed to be located somewhere within the modern development by the war memorial. Seeking confirmation.
Speculative Pearce Family Tree
(Alternative spellings: Pearce, Pearse, Pierce.)

James Pearce = Sarah ? = ?
(?-?)    (?-?) (?-?)    (?-?)
William Pearce (c1788-1853) = Ann(e) (c1796-1849)
  married = ?  
  Lydia Pearce (c1823-?) = Richard Barton
Mary Pearce (?-?)*
William Pearce (bap 1823-?)
Isaac Pearce (bap 1837-?)
[* + Arthur Pearce (1838-?) - son of Mary]
Tree: Deduced (additional information greatly appreciated)
Speculum Gregis 'names' shown in bold.
See also the 1841 Census (Page One)
William and Isaac Pearce dismissed from Sunday School 1843. "These were very disorderly boys who had been used always to do as they pleased before I came, and would not submit to discipline and disturbed the school." - Rev Francis Fulford.
4 Page 4 [View as Basic Text]
The Rectory
Reverend F Fulford
RSBS: (The good shepherd, to whom his successor feels greatly obliged for this 'Speculum Gregis'.)

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:  
[Had Fulford been consistant with his listings, this is where Church Farm and farmer William Ellis would have appeared. William Ellis is on page 88 - probably a late entry added in 1845 before the Speculum Gregis was handed over to the Revd Sandilands.]
5 Page 5 [View as Basic Text]
"House next to Mr Ellis's garden, by the Horse pond.
William Titmus and Lydia
He is son to Jane Thacker (page 2). He can't read, she can. He works for Mr Haydon of Arrington.
Samuel Richardson, grandson to Widow Edwards (page 52), her son by her former husband, lives with them, aged 22. Both Titmus and Richardson are given to drinking, but Titmus has of late begun to attend Church very regularly. Lydia and Samuel Richardson also attend church regularly."
RSBS: (Samuel Richardson is gone to Canada. Lydia Titmus is a great talker.)

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:  
6 Page 6 [View as Basic Text]
"Next door to the former.
John Titmus and Eunice
Brother to the last. She is daughter of John Simpson the RSBS: (late) Clerk. They both read a very little.
   1. Mary Titmus, aged 13. Can't read.
   2. Jane Titmus, aged 10. In the Sunday school
   3. Eliza Titmus, aged 8. In the Sunday school.
   4. William Titmus, aged 5.
   5. Isiah Titmus, aged 3.
All christened at Croydon Church, where they were married. He works for Mr Ellis, is given to drinking and rarely attends Church - she only occasionally. She says she can't manage to send her eldest girl to the Sunday School.
Jane was dangerously ill with a fever August 1842."
RSBS: (Eunice has attended church pretty regularly of late. John is very ill, a good deal brought on by drinking. He is a member of the Odd Fellows' Club.)
RSBS: (Later: John has profited much by his late illness and I have a good hope it will be a blessing to him.)

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:
7 Page 7 [View as Basic Text]
"First New Cottage at the bottom of the village
Joseph Purser and Anne
Aged people. Dissenters. They generally attend Bassingbourn Independent Meeting, and he expounds etc in the village on Thursday evenings. She acts as a midwife.
RSBS: (Joseph Purser has attended Church constantly twice every Sunday for more than a year, and she very often. I believe them to be good sort of people.)
Live in the same house with the above.
Jacob Wooten and Jessie (alias Mahala)
He is son of Joseph and Honor Wootton, works for Mr Ellis, can read little. She can read. They were married at Swaffam. They attend church very regularly.
   1. Ada Maria Wootton, aged 3. Christened in Croydon Church.
   2. Charlotte Wootton, aged 2. Christened in Croydon Church.
   (3. ------------------)
Mahala dropt down dead suddenly in a dancing booth at the Feast 1844."
RSBS: (Jacob Wootton married again in October 1846; his wife's name is Lydia, some years older than himself. He maintains a good character, and she seems a very respectable person.)

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:
8 Page 8 [View as Basic Text]
Next door
John and Sarah Pedley
Aged. He works at present for Mr Elliston. Can't read either of them. She is sister to Ann Miller, very orderly old people.
   1. William Pedley, aged 20. Sleeps at Miss White's. He can't read, was Christened at Croydon.
They all attend Church very constantly.
William has left the parish.
Richard Hagger
Sleeps in the same house, but has his meals with James and Jane Thacker. He is aged and disabled in one hand, RSBS: (very rarely) attends church, and is a rough subject. RSBS: (I find him regular at Church now, and generally civil. December 1848)

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:  
9 Page 9 [View as Basic Text]
"Next door.
Simeon and Susan Titmus
[He] Can read. She can't read. He sings at Church and works for Mr C King. He is son to Charles and Kitty Titmus, and Susan is sister to Thomas Nash.
1. Jane Titmus, aged 8. Attends the Sunday School.
   2. Anne Titmus, aged 4. Attends the Sunday School.
   3. Rebecca Titmus, aged 2.
They were married in Croydon Church and all their children Christened there. They attend Church very regularly, and are very steady respectable people.
Susan is one of our washerwomen.
Sleeps here
William Graves
Aged about 30, is cousin to Catherine Lee and has his meals at her house. He can read, attends Church constantly, is rather out of his mind at times. Has no near kindred.
I think he has left and lodges elsewhere. He is a very simple, harmless fellow.
He lodges with John Green, the Clerk."

[Above transcription corrected against original
document on 28 August 2008]
  Additional notes and genealogy:
The Speculum Gregis continues here  
Explanatory Notes:
Fulford generally devoted one page to each property; and I have retained his page numbers as serials for the entries. Crossings out shown are as in the original document. Information, footnotes and commentary additional to the original "Speculum Gregis" texts are shown as [grey text in square brackets].
In the pages of the original "Speculum Gregis", two handwritings are apparent, that of Francis Fulford (entries from 1843 to 1845) and that of his successor, the Rev Sandilands (entries from 1845 to 1848). The notes by the Rev Sandilands have been shown in this online edition as RSBS: (dark blue text within round brackets) and sometimes identified as a later entry.
However, having taken the opportunity to check the first 30 pages of the original manuscript, I found that quite a number of comments attributed to Sandilands in "The Rector and his Flock" were actually in Fulford's handwriting. I assume from the chronology of entries in the later 61 pages that there will be further attributions falling into this category.
A national Census was taken on the 6 June 1841, three weeks before Fulford's arrival in Cambridgeshire and eighteen months before the "Speculum Gregis" was started. Details from the Croydon-cum-Clopton census have been added to page entries where appropriate. Note that the ages of adults were generally rounded to the nearest five years by the census enumerator and therefore they should not be taken as a reliable indication of age.
The enumerator also reported that 26 Croydon labourers were "having left the district for the hay harvest in the neighbourhood of London", which would explain the absence of a number of the known heads of households.
I want this site to be as accurate and as informative as possible - please let me know if something is wrong, however trivial the correction. I would also welcome additional information to add to the annotated text - especially from those with 'family' in Croydon between 1840 and 1850.
In the first instance please contact the website with details.
© Copyright Steve Odell and the WimpolePast website 2002-2021. Website security
- Contact the Website here.
- All information on this web site is supplied in good faith.
- No responsibility can be taken for errors or omissions.
- This site does not use cookies.

This page was last updated on: 20 March 2021.
Page rebuilt on 9 March 2021.